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thanksgiving break

by: Nowak Notetaker

thanksgiving break PSY 101

Marketplace > Indiana University > Psychlogy > PSY 101 > thanksgiving break
Nowak Notetaker
GPA 3.6

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Introductory Psychology
Dr. Thomassen
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nowak Notetaker on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Indiana University taught by Dr. Thomassen in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Indiana University.


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Date Created: 11/29/15
MKNOWAK   Exam  3  study  guide     Sensation  and  Perception   Sensation:  translating  messages  (stim)  from  environment   • Sensory  neurons   • (first)   Perception:  producing  stable  interpretations  of  translated  messages   • (then)     Stim  -­‐>  sensation  (physical)  -­‐>perception  (higher  order  psychological  part)  -­‐>   response     Sensation:  building  blocks  of  experience   • data  driven  (  real  info)   • bottom-­‐up  processing   • physical   • translating  the  message   Perception:  experience  of  stim/events   • conceptually  driven  (from  mind)   • top-­‐down  processing  (organizing  data  mentally)   • psychological   • producing  stable  interpretations     Optical  Illusions  show  the  difference  btwn  sensation  and  perception   • sensory  info  has  not  changes   • perception  changes   • we  see  in  2D  and  perceive  in  3D  (depth  perception)   Hollow  Mask  Illusion   • ignore  monocular  depth  cues  of  shading       MKNOWAK         • shadows  overridden  by  top-­‐down  processing  (expectations  of  reality)       Schools   Structuralism  –  Wundt,  Fechner,  Weber     =  experiences  from  basic  senses     SENSATION   Gestaltists  (form)     =  organize  principals  of  visual  PERCEPTION   -­‐ fundamental  and  innate   -­‐ how  we  experience  as  whole,  rather  than  pieces     Sensation   • afferent   • Axn  potentials  respond  to  stim   Sight:  vision   -­‐ electromagnetic  energy   -­‐ wavelengths  of  light   Sound:  hearing   -­‐ physical   -­‐ sound  waves  thru  air   Touch   -­‐ physical   -­‐ pressure  on  receptors   Smell   -­‐ chemical   -­‐ molecules  in  air  or  liquid   Taste   -­‐ chemical   -­‐ molecules  on  tongue  receptors       MKNOWAK             Transduction:  going  from  physical  world  (external  stim)  to  the  language  of  the   mind  (neural  impulses)   • allows  brain  to  manipulate  enviro  data   • ex)  photoreceptors  detect  light,  but  eye  and  brain  detect  image   Transduction  occurs  w/in  photoreceptors  (create  neural  impulses)   400nm-­‐700nm:  visual  colors   short=violet/blue     medium=yellow/green     long=red   Rods  (about  120  mill/eye)   • sensitive  to  low  light,  mvmnt   • outer  eye  (peripheral)   Cones  (about  6  mill/eye)   • sensitive  to  fine  detail  (visual  acuity),  color   • densely  packed  in  center  (fovea)   Blind  Spot  =  no  receptor  cells  to  transduce  visual  message   • loc:  optic  nerve  leaves  back  of  eye(retina)     Dark  Adaption   Photopigments  in  photoreceptors  chemically  react  to  light   • break  down  in  bright   • regenerate  after  low  light  (=adaption)     Processing  in  Retina   (ganglion  cells)   • tuned  respond  to  specific  “trigger”   • brightness/contrast/lateral  field   • receptive  fields  across  retina   • magicians  and  pick  pocketers   Visual  Cortex  =  neurons  pick  up  and  process  features       MKNOWAK         • feature  detectors  =  cells  that  respond  to  very  specific  visual  events   • damage  =  prosopagnosia  (failure  of  face  recognition)         Color  Vision   Trichromatic  Theory   • 3  types  of  cones  (blue,  red,  green)   • colors  sensed  =  comparing  activation  of  colors  (most  are  a  mix  of  the  colors)   • wrong  kind  of  photopigment  in  cones=  certain  color  blindness   Opponent  Processes  Theory   • receptors  respond  positive  to  one  color  and  negative  to  complementary  color   (afterimages)   • yellow  –  blue   • red  –  green   • black  –  white     Stable  Interpretations   • inborn  tendencies   • bottom-­‐up  =  physical  messages   • top-­‐down  =  belief  of  expectations     5  laws  of  visual  organization  (Gestalt)   **all  TOP-­‐DOWN**   Proximity  =  closeness   -­‐ processed  as  unit   similarity   -­‐ similar  =  associated   Good  Continuity   -­‐ continuation  of  lines       MKNOWAK         Closure   -­‐ closed  figures  favored  over  open   Common  Fate   -­‐ moving  in  same  direction  =  group  together     Depth  Cues   Monocular  depth  cues  require  input  from  one  eye   • anything  used  in  drawing  3D  object  (relative  size,  overlap,  linear   perspective,  shading,  haze)   Binocular  depth  cues  require  2  eyes   • Retinal  Disparity:  diff  btwn  location  of  images  in  each  retina   • Convergence:  how  far  eyes  turn  inward  to  focus  on  object     Phi  Phenomenon   =  illusion  of  mvmnt  when  stationary  lights  are  flashed  in  succession   • Apparent  motion   • Assume  motion  w/o  actual  movement   • Movies,  flipbooks     Perceptual  Constancy   =perceiving  properties  of  an  object  to  remain  the  same  even  tho  physical  properties   of  sensory  message  are  changing   • Perception(mind)  of  objects  far  more  constant  or  stable  than  our  retinal   images(physical)   • top-­‐down   • sensory  messages  unstable   • size  constancy  (ex:  someone  walking  away)   • Shape  constancy  (ex:  door  closing)           MKNOWAK         Sound   Sound  is  mechanical  energy  (vibrating  stim)   -­‐ speed  of  vibrations  =  Frequency  (various  pitches)   -­‐ Intensity  of  vibrations  =  Amp  (volumes)   Transduction:  sound  energy  -­‐>  neural  impulses   • Loc:  cochlea   • Receptor  cells:  basilar  membrane  hair  cells     Localization=  compare  difference  in  arrival  times  and  loudness  btwn  ears     Touch   Mechanical  prs  on  cell   -­‐ Pressure-­‐sensitive  receptor  cells  in  skin   Pain   “  Close  the  Gate  ”  :  brain  can  block  pn  signals  from  reaching  higher  impulses   • Signals  stopped  in  spinal  cord   • Brain  releases  endorphins     Vestibular  Sense   • Semicircular  canals  =  mvmnt,  acceleration   • Vestibular  sacs  =  balance     Taste  and  Smell   Chemoreceptors  (  chemical  stim)     Taste  =  actual  sensation  produced  (physical,  bottom-­‐up)   Flavor  =  influenced  by  taste,  smell,  visual,  expectation  (psychological,  top-­‐down)     Sensations   absolute  threshold  =  level  of  intensity  that  lifts  stim  enough  for  rxn/aware       MKNOWAK         sensory  adaption  =  reduce  sensitivity  to  stim  source  that  remains  constant   -­‐ more  sensitive  when  stim  first  arrives   Weber’s  Law  =  when  the  just  noticeable  difference  (jnd)  for  stim    magnitude  is   constant  proportion  of  size  of  standard  stim   -­‐ stronger  standard  stim  =  larger  increase  needed   -­‐ jnd  depends  on  how  intense  standard  was   -­‐ relationship  btwn  physical  and  psychological  not  always  direct       Consciousness   =  subjective  awareness  of  internal  and  external  events   -­‐ limitation  of  awareness   -­‐ William  James     Attention   =  internal  processes  used  to  set  priorities  for  mental  functioning   -­‐ Selectively  focus  on  some  while  ignoring  others   -­‐ ex)  Dichotic  Listening  Task  =  cannot  listen  to  both  stories   -­‐ non-­‐conscious  screening     Dichotic  Listening  Task   =  different  auditory  messages  presented  separately  and  simultaneously  to  each  ear   -­‐ cannot  attend  to  both  messages  (ignore  one)     Cocktail  Party  Effect   =  shut  out  everything  except  our  conscious  awareness   -­‐ self-­‐relevant  makes  it  into  consciousness  (someone  yelling  name)     Automaticity   =  Fast  and  effortless  processing  w/o  attention   -­‐ requires  little  or  no  focus       MKNOWAK         -­‐ more  automatic  process  =  less  likely  consciously  aware   -­‐ more  consciousness  available  for  developing  new  and  creative  demands     Disorders  of  Attention   Visual  Neglect:  tendency  to  ignore  things  on  one  side  of  body  (usually  left)   • damage  to  right  parietal  lobe   • complex  disorder   • symp:  read  only  one  page,  dress  one  side   Blindsight:  unaware  of  perceiving  stimuli  w/in  area  of  visual  field   • damage  to  primary  visual  cortex   Prosopagnosia:  unable  to  recognize  familiar  faces   ADHD:  difficulties  in  concentrating  or  sustaining  attention   • distractible,  cannot  finish  tasks   • psychological  disorder     Hypnosis   =  heightened  state  of  suggestibility  in  a  willing  participant  (social  interaction)   -­‐ Franz  Mesmer   -­‐ Control  pn,  reduce  smoking,  improve  athletic  performance,  treating   psychological  disorders   -­‐ NOT  deep  sleep   -­‐ EEG  brain  activity  resembles  waking  state     Sleep     =  most  common  form  of  consciousness   • Reversible  state   • EEG  (monitors  electrical  activity  of  brain)  =  technology  used  to  know  when   someone  is  asleep   • Circadian  rhythms  =  biological  activities  that  rise  and  fall  in  accordance  w/   ~24  hr  cycle       MKNOWAK         o Controlled  automatically  by  biological  clocks  triggering  needed   activities  at  appropriate  times   o Mini  cycle  =  12  hrs   o Normal  cycle  =  little  more  than  24  hrs   o Reg  rhythm  of  sleepiness  and  wakefulness   o Environmental  factors  including:  light,  temp,  social   o traveling  eastward  =  against  rhythms   • sleep  deprivation:  hallucinations  start  @  day  4,  disrupt  ability  to  regulate   internal  functions  (temp),  loss  of  weight,  immune  system  and  organs  fail     Sleep  maintenance  (restorative)  =  helps  repair  normal  wear  and  tear   Survival  Value  (Adaptive)  =  removes  organism  from  hostile   • short  sleepers  (grazers)  =  predators   • long  sleepers   • less  sleep  =  more  food     Sleep  Cycle   • brain  waves  become  slower  and  more  reg  &  more  amp,  but  during  REM  it   resembles  awake  state   Each  REM  ~90  mins  (~4/5x  during  night)   Awake  &  drowsy  =  alpha  waves   Stage  1  =  theta  (easily  awaken)   Stage  2  =  (transitional)  interrupted  via  sleep  spindles  (short)  and  K  complexes   (sudden,  sharp)   Stage  3&4  =  delta  activity  (high  activity)  synchronized,  slow  waves     -­‐majority  of  sleep  in  stages  3&4   REM  =  replaces  awake  stage  (looks  similar)   • dominates  later  stages   • dreaming   • physiological  changes       MKNOWAK         • low-­‐amp  irregular  EEG  patterns     REM  Rebound  =  increase  time  spent  in  REM  to  make  up  for  REM  deprivation     Alternate  views  of  Dreams   Problem  Solving   Threat  stimulation   Activation-­‐synthesis  Hypothesis  =  brains  attempt  to  make  sense  of  random   patterns  of  neural  activity   • subconscious  thoughts   • high  order  functions   • problem  solving   Freudian  View  of  Dreams   =  wish-­‐fulfillment  of  the  unconscious  (especially  sexual  desire)   • dream  in  symbols   • manifest  content  =  actual  symbols/events  in  dream   • latent  content  =  hidden  desires     Sleep  Disorders   Dyssomia  =  problems  w/amount,  timing,  &  quality  of  sleep   -­‐ Insomnia  =  difficulty  starting  or  maintain  sleep  (>  month)   -­‐ Sleep  Apnea  =  sleeper  repeatedly  stops  breathing  t/o  night   -­‐ Narcolepsy  =  sudden  extreme  sleepiness     Parasomonias  =  abnormal  sleep  disturbances   -­‐ Nightmares  =  frightening,  anxiety-­‐arousing  dreams  awaken  sleeper   • primarily  during  REM   • frequent  =>  psychological  disorder   -­‐ Night  Terrors  =  sleeper  awakens  suddenly  in  extreme  state  of  panic   • non-­‐REM       MKNOWAK         • goes  away  w/age   -­‐ Sleepwalking  =  sleeper  wanders   • non-­‐REM   • goes  away  w/age   -­‐ Hypnic  Myoclania  =  jerk  to  jump  start   • brain  sends  signal  to  wake  up  body         Drugs  and  Sleep   Psychoactive  drugs  =  affect  behavior  &  mental  processes  thru  alterations  of   conscious  awareness   -­‐ change  communication  channels  of  neurons   -­‐ mimic  neurotransmitters  (nicotine)   -­‐ depress/block  (sleeping  pills)   tolerance:  increase  amounts  needed  to  produce  effect   -­‐ long  term  depression,  anhedonia   dependency:  physical  or  psychological  need  for  drug   -­‐ physical  dependency  =  withdrawal   mental  set:  expectations  of  drug   -­‐ familiarity,  enviro,  physical  state  influence     Drugs:   • depressants  (decrease  CNS)   o alcohol,  barbiturates,  tranquilizers  (Valium,  Xanax)   • Stimulants  (increase  CNS)   o Caffeine,  nicotine,  amphetamines,  cocaine   • Opiates  (decrease  CNS)  -­‐>  decrease  anxiety  and  pain,  increase  mood   o Mimic  brain  chemicals  (endorphins)   o Strong  physical  and  psychological  attachment/dependency       MKNOWAK         o Opium,  heroin,  morphine   • Hallucinogens  (disrupt  normal  mental&emotional  functioning)   o Alter  perception   o Mescaline,  psilocybin,  LSD     Memory   =  capacity  to  preserve  and  recover  info   Processes:   • Encoding  (how  formed)   • Storage  (how  kept)   • Retrieval  (how  recovered  and  translated  into  performance)   3  phases   • sensory   • working  memory  (STM)   • long-­‐term  memory  (LTM)     Sensory  Memory   Iconic  (Visual)   Echoic  (Auditory)   Eidetic  (Photographic)   • iconic  memory   • big  difference:  persists  in  time   • 2-­‐6%  children  have  this     Memory   =  capacity  to  preserve  and  recover  info   encoding  =  how  formed   storage  =  how  maintained   retrieval  =  how  recovered  &  translated  into  performance         MKNOWAK         Atkinson/Shiffrin  Model   Sensory  Memory  =  exact  replica,  lasts  <  1  sec   Working  Memory  /  STM  =  hold  info  temporarily,  rapidly  forgotten  w/o  rehearsal   Long  Term  Memory     Sensory  Memory   Iconic:  visual,  lingering  trace   Echoic:  auditory,  lingering  echo   Eidetic:  photographic   • iconic  memory   • big  difference:  persists  in  time   • 2-­‐6%  children  have   • generally  fades  @  ages  5/6     Sperling   Tachistoscope  =  visual  displays  fore  carefully  controlled  durations     Working/STM   • temporarily  stored       MKNOWAK         • “seat  of  consciousness”  =  what  we  are  aware  of  @  the  moment   • duration  ~  5  seconds   • allows  for  conversation  and  to  read   Increasing  STM  Capacity   • maintenance  rehearsal:  repeat  info  in  form  its  presented   o only  1  cue  (less  desirable  for  LTM)   o interference  ends  attention   • chunking:  rearranging  incoming  info  into  meaningful/familiar  patterns   o hold  7+/-­‐  2  chunks  of  info   STM  Lost   • Decay:  memories  not  kept  active  &  lost  overtime   • Interference:  form  new  w/old     LTM   (encoded)   =  maintain  info  for  extended  periods  of  time   -­‐ duration  &  capacity  “limitless”   Declarative  (or  Cognitive)  Memory   • explicit  (conscious  willful  recall)   Semantic:  knowledge  about  world  w/  no  specific  reference  to  particular  past   episode   -­‐ general  info,  undated   -­‐ ex)  facts,  rules,  questions  on  exams   Episodic:  particular  events  or  episodes  that  happened  personally  to  us   -­‐ episodes  of  life,  dated  images,  emotions   Procedural  Memory   =  knowledge  on  how  to  do  something   -­‐ Implicit  (remembering  w/o  conscious  awareness)   -­‐ ex)  sports,  driving         MKNOWAK         Elaboration  =  encoding  process  of  actively  relating  new  info  to  existing  info  already   stored  in  LTM   • assists  in  retrieving  info  later   • deep  processing  improves  recall   • deep=  self-­‐relevant,  elaboration,  concerned  w/meaning   • shallow=  simple,  flash  cards   mnemonics  give  retrieval  cues   consolidation  allows  memories  to  form  while  sleeping     Mnemonic  Devices  =  mental  tricks  that  help  people  think  about  material  in  ways   that  improve  later  material     Flashbulb  Memories  =  rich  records  of  circumstances  surrounding  emotionally   significant  and  surprising  events   • NOT  accurate:  schema  guides  encoding  &  combine  present  w/past     Visual  Imagery:  construct  internal  visual  image     Distributed  Practice:  space  out  repetitions   -­‐ memory  records  more  elaborate  and  distinctive     Serial  Positions   Primacy  Effect  =  Proactive  Interference   -­‐ remember  beginning  list  best   -­‐ old  (first  heard)  over  new  (last  heard)   Reccency  Effect  =  Retroactive  Interference   -­‐ remember  end  of  lost   -­‐ new  (last  heard)  interferes  w/  old  (first  heard)     Context-­‐Dependent  Encoding  =  same  enviro  for  encoding  and  retrieval       MKNOWAK         State-­‐Dependent  Encoding  =  encoding  in  particular  state  eases  retrieval  when  in   same  state     -­‐ mood  dependent   Transfer-­‐Appropriate  Processing  =  encoding  and  retrieval  use  same  kind  of  mental   Processes   -­‐ constant  conditions     Free  Recall:  remember  info  w/o  explicit  retrieval  cues   • essay,  fill  in  blank     Cued  Recall:  remember  based  on  retrieval  cue  provided   • recognition  rather  than  recall   • produces  better  performance/results   • multiple  choice,  word  bank     Effective  Recall:  when  encoding  and  retrieval  cues  match     Encoding  Failure   • info  never  encoded  into  LTM   • STM  loss  due  to  decay  or  interference   Forgetting  =  loss  of  accessibility  to  previously  stored  material   • Cue-­‐dependent   • Must  continuously  update  memory   • Main  cause:  failure  to  use  right  retrieval  cues     Ebbinghaus  Forgetting  Curve   • Longer  delay  =  longer  time  needed  to  recall     Retroactive  Interference  =  Receny   • new  interferes  w/  old       MKNOWAK         • end  list  favored     Proactive  Interference  =Primacy   • old  prevents  new   • begin  list  favored     Amnesia  =  forgetting  due  to  physiological  damage  or  trauma   -­‐ Retrograde:  don’t  remember  prior  to  event   o Recover  slowly   -­‐ Anterograde:  don’t  remember  after  event   o Can’t  form  new   o Memento     o “10  –  second  Tom”                             MKNOWAK        


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