Chapter 7: Memory
Chapter 7: Memory PSY 201
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Sunday November 29, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 11/29/15
CHAPTER 7 MEMORY 0 Memory The storage and retention of skills and knowledge Information Processing Model of Memory 0 Sensory Memory Atrace of the sensory in put is retained for a brief period 0 High capacity and very short duration up to a few seconds 0 Easily accessible but vulnerable 0 Working Memory also called Shortterm Memory STM Attentiveconscious processing occurs here Information can enterform both sensory memory and LTM 0 Small capacity and short duration seconds or minutes with active rehearsal O Easily accessible but vulnerable 0 LongTerm Memory LTM The stored representation of knowledge gained from previous expenence 0 Large capacity and indefinite duration up to decadeslifetime O Difficult to access but durable Types of Memory 0 Explicit Declarative learning learning facts and information of which we can be aware what we normally think of as memory 0 Episodic memory autobiographical memories ex childhood memories memories from episodes of your life 0 Semantic memory generalized memory of facts 0 Implicit Nondeclarative learning memory about perceptual and motor procedures of which we are unaware O Priming exposure to one stimulus alters response to another 0 Motor skill learning learning how to control the body in order to respond appropriately O Conditioning learning the relationship between stimuli classical conditioning or between behaviors and outcomes operant conditioning LongTerrln Memory 5 J Declarative Nondeclarative procedural Things you know that you Things you know that you can can tell others show by doing I I F 1 6 7 W Episodic Semantic Sklll learnlng Priming Conditioning Remembering your Knowing the Knowing how to Being more likely to use a Salivating when you first day in school capital of France ride a bicycle word you heard recently see a favorite food Brain Structures Involved in Memory 0 Prefrontal cortex working memory 0 Hippocampus spatial memory Temporal lobe declarative memory Amygdala fear learning Cerebellum motor action learning and memory Morris Water Maze 0 Environmental cues in room provide information that permits animals to orient themselves in space and learn the location of a hidden platform 0 Performance of normal vs hoppocampectomized rats Lack of hippocampus impairs performance Medial Temporal Lobectomy Patient HM Henry Molaison 0 Underwent surgery for severe epileptic seizures in 1953 at age 27 0 Removal of both medial temporal lobes including hippocampus 0 Almost total loss of the ability to encode new long term memories 0 But preserved short term memoryholds normal conversations intact reading ability and other skills that require only temporary maintenance information Medial Temporal Lobe Lesion Clive Wearing 0 In 1985 damage to the medial temporal lobe due to an encephalitis infection 0 Profound anterograde and retrogade amnesia 0 Can still play the piano although he has no recollection of ever having being trained 0 Amnesia A profound impairment of memory function as the result of brain injury 0 Retrograde Amnesia cannot remember events prior to brain damage Can remember childhood memories 0 Anterograde Amnesia cannot later remember events that occur after brain damage Can form new memories 0 Declarative memory affected by amnesia Where Are Memories Stored 0 Hippocampus needed for consolidation but is not the location where memories are stored 0 Memories thought to be stored in the cortex 0 Brain regions active during the perception of different sensory input Brain regions active when those same stimuli are remembered ConsolidationReconsolidation 0 consolidation process by which immediate memories become lasting longterm memories 0 Conventional view of memory wrong p a U ii ht9vwl93 l exprme ra conzohdnnon 0 Reconsolidation view of memory it I 110392quot 39l 33 A L 733717255 s COl t cllflfti39an recousolidation 0 What would happen if a person was given a certain drug that prevented the process of reconsoidation for a 6 hour period Memories recalled during that 6 hour period or shortly before that would be lost 0 Rat undergoes classical fear conditioning Anisomycin prevents reconsoidation only after recollection of the information so that the information is forgotten O Reconsolidation allows for memory disruptions Rainevat of last storage CPm lidaum rs 137sF5igipr2 g t W I Mar my a 35 my I r I M i z L 21 a a a 3 54 l quotrx w39s A d i 39 I l an In a of K who w a quot4 5 1j cigcrmc r fu 129573 2U mfli air 33 12514 am 0 Reconsolidation allows for memory distortions Retrieval 3 i I ugh consoimaaim 39 20 cow 1T 39 67quot s Swami Byafrzsza39fd jag 3 fan nquot It39 7 1 gt Reactivating a Memory 0 Optogenetics artificially activating neurons and memories of being shocked O 1A mouse39s brain cells are genetically engineered so that these associated with a memory become light sensitive O 2 The mouse explores a box and receives a foot shock 0 3 It encodes a fear memory of the box in firing brain cells 0 4 When a laser stimulates those cells the mouse freezes in fear as it recalls the memory gt Manipulating a Memory 0 1A mouse with the engineered lightsensitive cells explores Box A 2 It encodes a memory of the environment 3 In Box B the memory of Box A is activated with a laser while at the same time the mouse receives a foot shock 4 The mouse links the memory of Box A with the foot shock creating a false fear memory 5 When put back in Box A the mouse freezes mistakenly remembering it had been shocked there Examples of Tasks that rely on Working Memory 0 Working memory temporary store of information until we make use of it in a particular task 0 quotworkbenchquot where we can examine evaluate transform and compare different pieces of information 0 ex quotHe rushed across the court and protested vigorously that his opponent was infringing the rules by usingquot gt quotan illegal racquetquot gt quotinadmissible evidencequot 0 ex Which is bigger a baseball of a basketball 0 Characteristics of Working Memory 0 Easily accessible 0 Volatile Contents can be corrupted or lost easily unless rehearsed gt Distractor task prevents the remembrance of information if you are not allowed to rehearse the task 0 Capacity gt memory span quotThe magical number 7 plus or minus 2 Some limits on our capacity for processing informationquot 0 Capacity limited to 7 plus or minus 2 chunks of information 0 quotChunkingquot in Working Memory gt IBMHIVCNNATTUSACIA 0 IBM HIV CNN ATI39 USA CIA gt 14921984200117762015 0 1492 1984 2001 1776 2015 gt 149162536496491100121144 014 916 25 36 49 64 81100121144 0 1A2 2A2 3A2 4A2 5A2 6A2 7A2 8A2 9A2 10A2 11A2 12A2 0 The rule quota sequence of the squares of increasing digitsquot Characteristics of LongTerm Memory 0 Tradeoff between capacity and accessibility 0 large capacity low accessibility 0 Composed of networks of associations Ojoining related concepts and segregating unrelated concepts Sfrr il Rn itum rim asteristgg 3 and cusocistos are limited icy 312131qu False Memories 0 False memories can be created by created by O collateral activations of related concepts in longterm memory 0 topdown processing 0 fillingin the blanks O longterm memoryjust stores the quotgistquot of the scene not the details
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