Lecture 34: Conservation Biology
Lecture 34: Conservation Biology Bio 211
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiara Reyes on Monday November 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 211 at Northern Illinois University taught by Catherine Ausland in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Funds of Organismal Biology Lab in Biology at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
Lecture 34 Conservation Biology 1 What is Biodiversity A Species Biodiversity O O 18 million Described Species Total Species Diversity less thenequal to 20 percent described B Genetic Biodiversity 0 Within populations Heterozygosity Polymorphism Among population Local adaption unique alleles and traits Random Genetic Drift Allows populations to evolve in response to changing environments which equals to why concerned about reliance on few strains monocultures C Community and Ecosystem Biodiversity 0 Landscape Scale 2 Why Dose Biodiversity Matter A B Aesthetics and Moral Value Loss of Potential Food Species Wild relatives of crop plants are reservoirs genetic variability to improve crop increased yields disease resistance Causes of biodiversity decrease also impact human health via pollution leading to usable water 0 Medicines Most originated in organisms often plants Taxol anitovarion cancer drug resulted from US gov testing of more then 30000 plants Madagascar Periwinkle drug has changed survival from childhood leukemia from 10 to 90 percent Digitalin for the heart Bioprospecting screenings chemicals in wild life plants for potential medical uses F Ecosystem Services 0 Products and processes provided by wild organisms the bene t people Anthropocentric happen naturally without the assistance of humans Pollination Bats Bees Other insects for crops Flood Protection costal grasses mangrove forest Purification of air and water Pest Control by predators in agriculture Cycling of nutrients EXz Nitrogen xation 3Threats to Biodiversity Mostly due to Habitat Loss Invasive Species Overharvesting Global Changes Habitat Loss Smaller area of habitat can support smaller population meaning fewer individuals Most species are specialized only occur in certain habitats Edge Effects Not just area matters EX some species need to be contiguous habitat fragmentation large landsopen areas have slowly shrunk or broken to small patches of habitats Invasive Species Nuisance and nonnative don t staylive in one place Kudzu vine introduced on purpose to stop erosion Not all introduced species become invasive reaching densities and cause problems and those that do can cost a lot of money to control Overharvesting by Humans Especially vulnerable are species that are longlived slowly reproducing In development countries many wild animals hunted and sold as food Bush Meat In industrialized nation much of our seafood is still harvested from wild populations Global Climate Many species geographic locations of fundamental niche will shift towards poles Species range will have to shift with them if they cannot adapt to new abiotic conditions If shifting ranges are blocked by geographic features ex mountains lake deserts or species are dispersal limited people cold move them to new suitable locations Assisted Migration 4 Genetic Diversity Matter Inbreeding Mating with close relatives 0 If often decrease tness it equals to Inbreeding Depression Exl Adder PoDulation Isolated Un isolated Offspringfemale 7 10 Still born 32 percent 6 percent Population size decreasing stable Heterozygosity 009 033041 Small population often experience an extinction vortex more individuals are force to use resources causing population to shrink more 5 Conservation 0 Goal Maintain biodiversity by maintaining population of organisms Nature reserves protected areas areas pf habitats where human activities are managed to maintain biodiversity Bigger is better Larger geographic area equals bigger population and more species Today protected areas often composed of multiple contiguous reserves with various ownership Ex State Parks National Parks National Forest Privately owned reserves all Reserve Systems
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