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1/27 & 1/29

by: Alyssa Reyes

1/27 & 1/29 PSYC 2301

Alyssa Reyes
Intro to Methods in Psychology

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These notes include all of lecture 2 and what we have gone over so far for lecture 3. You can see each starting point by looking at the highlighted date. The color of the notes go as green=side n...
Intro to Methods in Psychology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Reyes on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2301 at University of Houston taught by Breitmeyer in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views.

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Date Created: 01/30/15
Lecture 2 Scienti c Method amp Research Skills 1 Characteristics of Scienti c Method and Research a empirical b logicalcritical l inductive c Objectivepublic vs subjectiveprivate D when someone says they have a stomach ache how can you tell You can39t You re not the one experiencing it You just have to believe them Skeptical don39t ALWAYS believe scienti c claims Replicable you must get the same results each time the test is repeated Testableveri able Discon rmable Corrigible if your hyp Is wrong you can changecorrect it s of Science observe behaviors Predict behaviors D ACTSAT scores help universities predict how well you will do academically c Find causes of behaviors d Explain behaviors 3 Types of Scienti c Research a pure or basic emphasis on discovering new questions or new scienti c puzzles to solve ex cognitive psychology b Applied or practical research nd solutions to existing problems ex clinical and educational psychology DD 2 Go UQEILth 4 SCIENTIFIC HYPOTHESES a Relation btwn explanation and observation i Observation description induction l explanation theoretical account ii theories explanation deduction D expected observation prediction iii The role of observation 1 Formulate theories 2 Test theories empirically iv Role of theory 1 Explain ndings and observations 2 Predict from deductive reasoning what new observations should be found v Hypotheses 1 Formal statements relating a given theoretical proposition to a given observation 2 Can be inductive or deductive 5 SOURCES OF RESEARCH IDEASHYPOTHESES a common sense proverbial knowledge 0 quotlong live differencequot or quotopposites attractquot 0 quotBirds of a feather ock togetherquot Which is true b naturalistic observations via induction l Konrad Lawrence ducklings always follow their mother around Why is this though Is it nature or nurture From experience or genetic Eventually f g Konrad becomes mother goose they start following him It must be expe ence theory via deduction a Once he made the observation Konrad created a theory Intuitions dreams hypnogogic morning hypnopompic night states owing thoughts when you wake up or fall asleep D Benzene ring idea came from a dream The scientist dreamt of a snake biting its own tail thus creating a ring shape prior research published articles empirical and theoretical reviews eg Psych Abstr Psych Bu Psych Rev Ann Rev Psychol Applied problems D quothow can I help this group become better at communicating w one anotherquot experience in doing research apprenticeship Lecture 3 Variables 1 2 3 WHAT IS A VARIABLE a A characteristic feature or aspect of an object action or setting i Observed behaviors quotlevel of crowdingquot quotnoise level in a roomquot OPERATIONAL DEFINITION any science a Important role in replicability of measurements and observations b Two typespurposes i Measurement of variables what is being observed how are observations to be made Physics class example I want u to measure the height of the tower I will give each of you a pyrometer measures air pressure to measure at the bottom and at the top of the building Student decides to do it differently Prof says quotthat39s not right Do it my wayquot He then uses the shadow of the building Prof still doesn39t like the method Student then tries dropping a thermometer from top to bottom while friend timed the fall D SO you can always get goodcorrect results in different ways ii Experimental manipulation of variables M H c There is no single correct or right operational de nition for de ning and measuring a variable or for manipulating one eg what is quotshynessquot and how do you measure it How can we manipulate motivational level i Shyness look for body language eye contact stuttering ii Increase motivation in ppl using money extra credit d Sources of data measurements and observations depend on operational de nition i physiological measures eg EEG EMG heart rate GSR ii behavioral measures eg number of responses speed of response accuracy of response iii selfreport measures eg personality assessments subjective ratings RELATION OF VARIABLES TO RESEARCH METHODS a Experimental Method Can be used to draw causal inferences How does systematically manipulating one variable produce systematic changes in another variable two aspects of method manipulation of one variable Ueveloftouch observationmeasurement of another variable dependent variable minimal structure of a valid experiment Control conditiongroup no touch group Experimental conditiongroup touched group Field experiment doing research outside of a lab in a natural setting Done by ppl interested in personality social psychology Ex Effect of touch on ppl s behavior Does it cause positive reinforcing value Control group person was not touched when giving the card Other group they were touched D the variable is touch Result the minimal amount of touch affected the person s potential issue of concern when using experimental method possibility of confounds Subjectvariable confounds D let s say 1720 that were touched were female Gender can be a confound variable Treatment confound changes in level of independent variable The person behind the counter smiles smiling can make you feel good also CONCLUSION CAN BE FLAWED b Correlational method Can only be used to describe or predict cannot be used to draw causal inferences uses exploratory studies sleep affecting cognitive performance iii Potential issue of concern when using correlational method possibility of intervening third variable


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