New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Choice, matching, and self-control

by: Aimee Castillon

Choice, matching, and self-control PSYC 304

Marketplace > George Mason University > Psychlogy > PSYC 304 > Choice matching and self control
Aimee Castillon
GPA 3.61
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Contains lecture notes from Monday 11/23 and today (11/30)
Principles of Learning
Patrick McElroy
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Principles of Learning

Popular in Psychlogy

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Aimee Castillon on Monday November 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 304 at George Mason University taught by Patrick McElroy in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Principles of Learning in Psychlogy at George Mason University.


Reviews for Choice, matching, and self-control


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 11/30/15
Organization name Student name student email address PSYC304 0 Fal2015 2 1169 operant schedules use concurrent schedules of reinforcement Matching law problem Vl 30sec Vl 60sec in a 1hour session on average how many reinforcers are possible on each schedule Vl 30sec 120 Vl 60sec 60 twice as much reinforcement is possible on the VI 30sec as on the VI 60sec Choice matching and selfcontrol concurrent schedules of reinforcement simultaneous presentation of two or more independent schedules each leading to a reinforcer the subject chooses how to distribute behavior between or among the schedule alternatives e VR 20 VR 5O which one has the higher rate of reinforcementwhich is the richer schedule faced with the same choice how would you direct your behavior e Vl30 sec Vl6O sec would interval schedules change your behavior The Matching Law Herrnstein 1961 the proportion of responses directed to one alternative of a pair of concurrently available schedules is equal to the proportion of reinforcers obtained on that schedule e Vl 30sec Vl 60sec the matching law predicts that twice as much behavior will be directed to the VI 30sec schedule as compared to the VI 60sec imagine that 600 responses are emitted in the 1hour sessionmatching would predict that 400 of them would be directed to the VI 30sec schedule and 200 to the VI 60sec schedule 400200 21 ie if a pigeon earns 10 of its reinforcement on one concurrently available schedule it will direct 10 of its behavior to that alternative matching law equation RAIRA RB SRAISRA SRB R number of responses emitted on a particular schedule A or B SR number of reinforcers earned on a particular schedule A or B deviations from matching undermatching proportion of responses on the richer schedule is less than expected occurs when there is little or no cost to switching in most studies of choice there s actually a delay imposed before reinforcement can be earned after switching from one schedule to another changeover delay COD Undermatching examples in real life phone companies ATampT vs Verizon always choose time in melioration Vl 30sec Vl 60sec matching predicts 67 of responses to the VI 30sec the richer schedule in real life there s often a cost associated with changing from one alternative to another a foraging animal loses time when switching from one food source to another we often have to pay a fee to change wireless providers in order to get morebetter service if there is no cost it makes sense to alternate between the choices frequently overmatching the proportion of responses on the richer schedule is greater than expected occurs when there s a high cost to switching ie we ll stay with the wireless plan that generally works best for us if it would cost a lot to switch even if another plan has a great introductory offer bias from matching occurs when one of the response alternatives attracts a higher proportion of responses than expected it doesn t matter if it is the richer or leaner schedule eg when a pigeon disproportionately chooses a red response key regardless of the schedule in effect at the time an indicator of the attractiveness of a response alternative whether a color or a person and a preference for it that is independent of its reinforcing value bias in matching can be used to assess the degree of preference for different reinforcers Vl 60sec wheat anything other than an even distribution of responses indicates a preference matching and melioration maximization choice behavior is distributed to maximize the overall level of reinforcement melioration choice behavior shifts towards alternative that has a greater value regardless of the effect on the overall level of reinforcement Vl 30sec Vl 60sec at first behavior might be equally distributed between the choices that means the VI 30sec choice will result in twice as much reinforcement it will have more value than the VI 60sec choice responses will therefore shift increasingly to the VI 30sec choice until the point of matching is reached at which point the two alternatives have about equal value cost Responses will match the benefits reinforcers on both schedules Don t confuse selfmanagement with willpower shortcircuiting do problematic behavior selfpunishment don t do problematic selfreinforcer OR get reinforced for nothing melioration can result in a lower overall amount of reinforcement in any of three ways an alternative might not require the amount of responding that is directed toward it VR 60 VR 20sec what s the best strategy pigeons will match behavior to the rate of reinforcement on the VI 20sec schedule earning fewer reinforcers on the VR schedule more behavior being directed at an attractive alternative can cause habituation reducing its value as a reinforcer eg suddenly being able to indulge at will in an expensive food or activity behavior might be governed by shortterm rather than delayed consequences eg delayed rewards have less perceived value than immediate rewards ie marshmallow experiment Selfcontrol Skinner selfmanagement involves conflicting outcomes a controlling resoonse alters the frequency of a controlled resoonse ie leaving money at home before going to a bar controlled response spending money at bar controlling response leaving money at home examples of controlling responses physical restraint depriving and satiating doing something else selfreinforcement and selfpunishment immediate vs delayed consequences lack of selfcontrol occurs when our behavior is influenced more by immediate rather than delayed consequences we might choose smaller immediate rewards over larger delayed rewards ie studying for the final next week we might avoid smaller immediate punishers over larger delayed punishers ie drinking with friends and then having a hangover the next day there s often more uncertainty in delayed consequences delay of gratification experiments selfcontrol is choosing Mischel s delay of gratification paradigm kids had to choose between a lesspreferred reward they could have immediately and a morepreferred reward that would be delayed selfdistraction techniques ie averting eyes talking or singing to themselves AinslieRachlin example would you choose 100 check to get in a month or a 200 check to get next year The deeper the scallop on the graph the more selfcontrol they have experimental distractions not leaving reward in the room having subjects focus on abstract properties of the rewards ie pretzel log AinslieRachlin model of selfcontrol preferences for smaller immediate versus larger delayed rewards can change over time the value of a reward is a hyperbolic function of its delay as delay decreases reward value increases slowly at first and then more and more sharply as the reward becomes imminent factors affecting impulsivity species differences ie3 seconds feels long for a rat but not for humans individual age the older you are the less impulsive you are experience with delayed rewards the availability of other reinforcers subgoals small attainable goals that lead up to the ultimate goal commitment response action that eliminates or reduces the value of an upcoming reinforcer ie behavioral contracting smallbutcumulative effects each choice we make has a small but cumulative effect on us obtaining the longterm desired outcome problem continue to choose the same choice then this becomes a larger cumulative effect over time ie cheat days for a diet AKA the snowball effect


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.