Popular in American History since 1865
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindley on Monday November 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1020 at Clemson University taught by Rod Andrew in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see American History since 1865 in History at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 11/30/15
924 Continuation of Spanish American War A blowout John Dewey s eet crushed the Spanish eet in the Philippines at Manila Bay US had more modern navy bigger steel modern guns Troops in Cuba Battle of San Juan Battle of Santiago right off the coast of Cuba By 1899 they gave up Maj or results of the war Immediately Americans acquired an overseas empire Philippines Puerto Rico Wake Island Samoa annexed Hawaii Brought a new sense of unity between North and South Proved southern loyalty to the nation Fighting Joe Wheeler McKinley decreed federal gov t would begin caring for Confederate cemeteries Black Americans also enlisted but weren t given their full civil rights Buffalo Soldiers two black regiments Established US as a military power to be taken seriously World War I 19141918 US 19171918 Most horrible bloody war up to that point poison gas machine guns barbed wire industrial economy As a result US emerged as one of the most powerful nations in the world Lots of tension between great powers in Europe Lots of tension in Baltic States Serbia Bosnia especially they didn t like being under the control of AustriaHungary To make it worse there was a tangled web of alliances secret treaties Also Germany s threatening attitude Late July 1914 Serbian nationalist assassinated the heir to the throne of the Austria Hungarian empire Archduke Ferninand AustriaHungary consulted with ally Germany and chose to declare war on Serbia Serbia had a secret alliance with Russia Germans declare war on Russia whose ally was France etc lots of secret alliances Allies Serbia Russia France Britain Italy Great Powers AustriaHungary Germany and Turkey Most Americans were proAllies most actually wanted to stay out of it Trench warfare rats mud nomans land Verdun over a million casualties and Battle of Somme symbolized how ruthless this war was British naval blockade of Germany Went beyond what international boundaries allowed kept out food medicine and war materials Wilson protested it because it cut off our trade with Germany made up for it by trading with Allies German submarines started sinking ships Germans sank British passenger line Lusitania with many Americans on board 1915 Had munitions on board and warning was sent out from Germany Germany promised not to sink passenger ships submarines were now useless British propaganda accusing Germany of horrible acts changed American View Wilson tried twice to mediate two sides election of 1916 He kept us out of the war 1917 unrestricted submarine warfare by Germany returns In March sank 4 American merchant ships Germany took a gamble that they could defeat Britain and France before US mobilized and could make a difference Zimmerman telegram February 1917 British intercepted telegram from German foreign minister to gov t of Mexico Suggested that just in case there was a war between US and Germany Mexico would join war in return for financial aid and take back AZ TX and NM Affected public opinion March 1917 czar of Russia was forced to abdicate his throne First looked like a democracy 3 6 Makes it easier for US to join war for democracy make the world safe for democracy April 2nd 1917 Wilson asked Congress to declare war Said Germany was the cause Tried to turn it into a moral crusade war to end all wars Stomp out authoritarian rule believed democratic countries didn t start wars Fourteen Points Wilson s postwar plan for peace 5 principles imbedded Selfdetermination of people people get to choose own rulers Freedom of the sea no sinking neutral vessels in war Free trade no blockades completely free ow No secret treaties League of Nations general association of nations for peace US troops began trickling over to France and by 1918 had large number Boxer analogy US was fresh and aggressive General John J Pershing Spring 1918 Germans launched one last offensive to end war before Americans got too strong Americans played key defensive role in stopping the Germans Battle of Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood Dan Daly and Alvin York Illustrates how the Americans entered fresh and aggressive St Mihiel and Meuse Argonne offensive missions Germany f1nally breaks armistice November 11 1918 Moral and Victorian belief shattered in Europe WWI Home Front First huge surge in patriotism believed in moral crusade but at the same time there was a lot of antiGerman hysteria Gov t demanded conformity didn t accept dissent Sedition Act 1918 made it a crime to criticize the gov t and the war Espionage Act 1917 gave gov t new tools to combat sabotage spying or obstruction of war effort WWI was carried out in a typical Progressive way Ran by bureaucratic experts boards commissions 5000 gov t agencies War Industries Board coordinated industrial production Food Administration rationed food Railroad Administration gov t basically took over to coordinate so ammunition was over consumer goods Committee on Public Information propaganda After the war Wilson traveled throughout Europe to sell his Fourteen Points seen as a hero a great peace maker European gov t only agreed with League of Nations Now he just needed Senate to sign and US to join but a lot of people opposed especially Republican Henry Cabot Lodge US Senate refused to ratify League of Nations treaty Wilson pushed himself into bad health didn t even get Democratic nomination in 1920 election
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