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GEOG 150: Week 10 Notes

by: Julia Gladding

GEOG 150: Week 10 Notes GEOG 150

Julia Gladding
Cal Poly
GPA 3.9

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These notes contain: Super important (and detailed!) lecture notes from 11/23. Topics include the South China Sea, Western Sahara, and the Arab Revolutions. Several of these topics will be essay t...
Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography
Dr. Meg Streiff
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Julia Gladding on Monday November 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 150 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Meg Streiff in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 93 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Human Geography/Introduction to Cultural Geography in Geography at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.


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Date Created: 11/30/15
Monday, November 23, 2015 Rubenstein Political Geography 276-283, 286-297 Why Do Boundaries Cause Problems? What are boundaries? - Boundaries are invisible lines that separate states. What used to separate - States used to be separated by frontiers rather than states? boundaries. - Types of Boundaries What are the three Physical Boundaries types of physical • - Desert boundaries — effective because deserts are boundaries? Why are hard to cross and sparsely inhabited. each effective? - Mountain boundaries — effective if difficult to cross, permanent, sparsely inhabited. - Water boundaries — rivers, lakes and oceans. Good protection. Not always permanent (i.e. The Rio Grande, between U.S. and Mexico changes course) Where do state’s • The Law of the Sea boundaries extend to in - territorial limits extend 12 nautical miles (22 km, 14 the ocean? land miles). - States have exclusive rights to fish and marine life within 200 miles • Cultural Boundaries What are the two types - Geometric boundaries — straight lines of cultural boundaries? • i.e. between U.S. and Canada; between Chad Give examples of each. and Libya - Ethnic boundaries — based on language and religion • i.e. British portioned India into Pakistan (Muslim) and India (Hindu); Island of Eire into independent Ireland (Roman Catholics) and Northern Ireland stayed part of UK (Protestant) • England, France, Portugal, Spain separated by language Explain Cyprus’s - Cyprus’s “Green Line” Boundary “Green Line” • Greek majority, Turkish minority boundary? • Wall and buffer zone separated Greeks from Turks • Now parts of the wall are gone • 2004 European Union accepts entire island of Cyprus a member 1 Monday, November 23, 2015 Where is GPS being - Demarcating Boundaries with GPS used to demarcate • Surveyors using GPS to determine precise boundary boundaries? What are between North and South Carolina problems associated • Some properties with ties to one state are actually in with this boundary? the other • State governments trying to minimize impact by ignoring the new precisely demarcated boundary - Shapes of States What impacts do the • Shape impacts length of boundaries with other states shapes of states have? therefore impacting potential communication and conflict with neighbors. What are the 6 types of • Compact States: Efficient state shapes? What - distance from center to boundary does not vary benefits/problems are much associated with each? • ideally capital at center - good for communication • Elongated States: Potential Isolation - May suffer from poor internal communications • Prorupted States: Access or Disruption - Created for two reasons: Access to water • • To separate two states that otherwise would share a boundary • Perforated States: South Africa - one state completely surrounds another - problematic because must rely on the state that surrounds you (imports/exports, etc.) • Fragmented States: Problematic - several discontinuous pieces of territory - islands - Two kinds of fragmented states: Fragmented states separated by water • - issues with communication, national integration • Fragmented states separated by an intervening state • Landlocked sates - British and French empires had railroads to connect interior to sea. Now countries are independent and landlocked. - Must use other country’s seaports to gain access to sea for international trade 2 Monday, November 23, 2015 - Governing States What are the regime • National Scale: Regime Types types on a national - democracy scale? • citizens express preferences on leaders, executive has constraints, all citizens guaranteed civil liberties - autocracy — run according to interests of the ruler, not the people • leaders selected according to rules of succession (usually hereditary), citizens’ participation restricted/suppressed, leaders have no checks - anocracy — mix of democracy and autocracy What are the three - Trend toward democracy reasons that the trend • Three reasons: is moving toward - replacement of monarchies with elected democracy? governments - more citizens participating in policymaking by voting, serving in government - diffusion of democratic government structures from Europe and North America When, where, and what - Arab Spring was the Arab Spring? • 2010-2011 protests in Southeast Asia, North Africa resulting in forcing from power autocratic rulers in Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Yemen • demonstrations, rallies, strikes, civil disobedience • use of social media and technology What are the state • Local Scale: Unitary and Federal States types on a local scale? - unitary state — most power given to central government officials • usually in small countries and/or countries with few cultural differences and a strong national identity • some multinational states use unitary system to give one nationality power over others - i.e. Kenya, Rwanda - federal state — most power given to local government • good for large states, multinational states - shift toward federal states Why Do States Cooperate and Compete with Each Other? 3 Monday, November 23, 2015 - Cold War Competition and Alliances • Era of Two Superpowers How many great - Before WWI, eight great powers powers were there - After WWII, balance of power (a condition of before and after WWII? roughly equal strength) between only Soviet Union and US. World split into two sides. • • Both Soviet Union and US used military force to keep countries as their allies. Describe the Cuban - Cuban Missile Crisis Missile Crisis. • Soviet Union secretly began building missiles in Cuba, close to US territory. • Soviets denied they were building missiles, but US proved they were with satellite images. • Soviets dismantled the missiles. What were the two - Military Cooperation in Europe military alliances in • Two military alliances: NATO (democratic states) Europe? What and Warsaw Pact (Communist Eastern European happened to each? countries) • Maintained a bipolar balance of power in Europe • Warsaw Pact disbanded, NATO reduced number of troops • Many Eastern European countries joined NATO to protect them against Russia in the future • Economic Alliances in Europe What were the two - Two economic alliances formed during the Cold economic alliance in War in Europe: Europe? European Union (EU) — meant to heal Western • Europe’s scars from WWII • Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) — Eastern European Communist states plus Cuba, Mongolia, Vietnam How has the European - The EU in the Twenty-First Century Union changed in the • Has grown from 6 members to 27 today, with 21st century? likelihood to have more. • When Communism fell, COMECON members joined. What is the EU’s • Purpose is to promote development in member purpose? countries through political and economic cooperation - European Parliament elected by the people - Subsidies to farmers and economically depressed areas - Mostly free trade 4 Monday, November 23, 2015 What was the Eurozone - Eurozone Crisis Crisis? • Single bank: European Central Bank • Common currency: the euro • Global recession in 2008 forced economically weaker countries to implement unpopular policies and economically stronger countries to subsidize weaker states What is cultural - Cultural Integration in Europe integration like in • Crossing boundaries more of a cultural rather Europe? What are the than political experience. attitudes toward • In Europe, language is the obstacle to cultural immigration? integration, not national boundaries. • Europeans increasingly oppose immigration from south and east. - worried immigrants will maintain high crude birth rates, increase population in Europe. List other alliances in • Alliances in Other Regions other regions. Who is a - Organization on Security and Cooperation in part of those alliances Europe (OSCE) and what are their • US, Canada, Russia, most of Europe goals? • Goal: ending conflicts in Europe, especially in the Balkans and Caucasus - Organization of American States (OAS) • all states in the Western Hemisphere • promotes social, cultural, political, economic links among members - African Union (AU) original goal to end colonization and apartheid • • new emphasis on economic integration - Commonwealth • United Kingdom and 52 others that were once British Colonies • seek economic and cultural cooperation - Terrorism by Individuals and Organizations Give three distinctive • Terrorists achieve goals through organized acts that characteristics of spread fear; view violence as a way to address goals terrorists. and grievances; believe so strongly in a cause they will die for it. How does terrorism • Terrorism differs from assassination in that violence is differ from aimed at citizens rather than political leaders. assassination? 5 Monday, November 23, 2015 • Terrorism Against Americans - 1990s: Several car bombs, bombing US embassies, USS Cole • September 11, 2001 Attacks Who was responsible - Al-Qaeda responsible for 1990s attacks and 9/11 for 1990s attacks and • Led by Osama bin Laden 9/11? - Bin Laden declared war against the US in 1996 because US supported Saudi Arabia and Israel • US responsible for Saud royal family and rulers and state of Israel dominated by Jews Describe Al-Qaeda. • Al-Qaeda - Al-Qaeda has performed several attacks since 9/11 - Not a single unified organization - Small leadership council that advised Bin Laden - Also local franchises - Imitators and emulators tied ideologically but not financially How is Al-Qaeda and - Problem for Muslims: disagreeing with government problem for Muslims? policies in US and Europe while disapproving of terrorism How is Al-Qaeda a - Problem for Americans and Europeans: problem for Americans distinguishing between peaceful practices and and Europeans? beliefs of Muslims and the misrepresentation of Islam by terrorists 6 Monday, November 23, 2015 - State Support for Terrorism List and describe the • States in Middle East supported terrorists by: three main levels of - Providing sanctuary for terrorists wanted by other involvement Middle countries. Eastern countries have Afghanistan — US invaded Afghanistan, had in supporting • destroying the Taliban (government) because the terrorism. Taliban sheltered bin Laden and other al-Qaeda terrorists. • Pakistan — US believed bin Laden hiding in mountains in Western Pakistan. bin Laden actually in a compound in city in Pakistan. - Supplying terrorists with weapons, money, and intelligence. Iraq — US asserted Suddam Hussein was • building weapons of mass destruction, close links between Iraq’s government and al-Qaeda. US invaded Iraq in 2003. • Iran — US accused Iran of harboring al-Qaeda members, trying to influence Shiites in Iraq - Planning attacks using terrorists. • Libya — government of Libya accused of sponsoring bombings: night club in Berlin, bombs on Pan Am flight in Scotland and UTA flight over Niger. • Libya is no longer considered a state sponsor of terrorism. 7 Monday, November 23, 2015 Lecture Political Geography, Political Conflicts Islands in the South China Sea What is in contention in - Islands, bodies of water in contention. the South China Sea? • Disagreement on names of islands, bodies of water. - People don’t live there. Mostly island chains. Why is everyone - Everyone is arguing about what is who’s territory arguing? because there haven’t been treaties that discuss what islands belong to what countries. What are people most - People more worried about fishing rights than war. concerned about? • There have been people fishing in the South China Sea for thousands of years. - China claiming islands, but Filipinos have been fishing there for years. “China back off.” - No gunfire but political issues. What is most - Most controversial: China is building artificial islands out controversial? of little stretches of sand. • Does this through dredging - picking up sand from the bottom of the ocean floor and putting it somewhere else, building an island. • Putting military base on the land. • Environmental degradation disturbing marine ecosystem. What has Obama done - Obama putting warships in the South China Sea, telling in the South China China they cannot dominate these bodies of water and Sea? - they must be open to international trade. What resources are in Massive oil and gas reserves all over the South China the South China Sea? Sea. Western Sahara Is Western Sahara - Considered a colony of Morocco. independent? - Last colony in Africa that wants independence. - - Spanish colony. What happened in In 1970s, As the rest of Africa is gaining independence, Western Sahara in the people in Western Saharan want independence too and 1970s? form a rebel group called the Polisario Front. What happened to - Spain withdraws from Western Sahara in 1976. Western Sahara? - Instead of giving Western Sahara independence, handed the people and land of Western Sahara to it’s neighboring allies: Morocco and Mauritania. - Mauritania leave in 1979 and never returns. 8 Monday, November 23, 2015 IMPORTANT PART! —> - 1979: Polisario Front begin a nasty 12 year war with Morocco. • Morocco uses cluster bombs on cluster bombs and agent orange (chemical weapons). Polisario Front using guerrilla warfare tactics. Where was the • Poicsario Front got its weapons and money from Poicsario Front getting Algeria. its weapons and money - Why? Algeria is enemies with Morocco. from? - Algeria at this time was a close ally of the Soviet Union. - Polisario Front was using Soviet Weapons. Where was Morocco • Morocco getting weapons and money from the United getting its weapons States. and money from? - Because the other side was communist. - Why? Allies with Morocco going back to 1787 — Morocco was the first to congratulate U.S. when it gained independence from Britain. • Proxy war: ultimately Soviets fighting U.S. Where did people in - People in Western Sahara fled to Algeria. Western Sahara flee • UN puts up refugee camps in Algeria. to? • 200,000 people ended up in these camps. • Still sitting in camps today. What is the current - Ceasefire is reached but there is no peace deal. status of the conflict? • Frozen conflict: not heated right now, but certainly not over. Who built the wall? - Morocco built a wall that is 1,600 mile long wall How is the wall reinforced with Moroccan soldiers and land mines. reinforced? Morocco claims everything west of the wall. Left everything else (desert) to Western Saharan people. Is the wall legal? Why? • The UN says this wall is illegal. • Prohibiting Western Saharans from crossing over. • Morocco justifies building the wall because terrorists were coming over. Why is Morocco - Morocco holding onto Western Sahara because of oil holding onto Western and fishing. Sahara? - UN says Morocco needs to tear down the wall, give What is the UN’s Western Saharans their land back. stance? - Moroccan king says land belongs to Morocco. What does the - UN talks every year: Western Saharans say yes to Moroccan king say? voting/to partial-autonomy and then independence. What occurs in the UN Morocco says no. talks? - Only real answer: Morocco needs to back down. What is the only real answer? 9 Monday, November 23, 2015 Arab Revolutions Where is the Arab - Arab world = where Arabs live: Middle East, North Africa world? - Began in Tunisia in 2010 then spread to every country Where did the Arab on the map on the lecture slide. Revolutions start? - Tunisia was important because it broke the fear barrier. What kind of - Arab world living under dictatorships that had been government did Arabs there for decades. have? - These revolutions all had some things in common: Name six things that all • (1) Major problems in unemployment and the revolutions had in underemployment. common. - Angry young people. • (2) Stagnant, unresponsive political systems. • (3) Very little independent media allowed. - Everything censored or rewritten by the government. - People living there knew the information was out there. • (4) Corruption everywhere. - Bribe money expected for everything. • (5) Facilitated by social media. Namely Facebook and Twitter. • (6) These revolutions included a cross-section of people. Kids, elderly, religious and non-religious people, doctors, lawyers, bus drivers. When and how did the - Tunisia revolution in Tunisia • Starts in December 2010: produce vendor selling food start? on the street, doesn’t have a permit, asks for a bribe, she took his fruit, scales, slaps him in public. - Went to the government saying “I want my produce and scaled back.” Government did nothing. - Sets himself on fire in the middle of the street. - Filmed and put on Facebook immediately. What mistakes did the • President of Tunisia made serious mistakes: president of Tunisia - Established all night curfew. make? - Did not allow public gatherings of more than 2 people. - Sent in army. - Two weeks later, the military said no more. - Military turned against the president, said no to using force to stop protests. Military actually ended Was Tunisia the the revolution. successful? • Tunisia was a success story. What is Yemen like - Yemen now? • Government fell, but Yemen in chaos. 10 Monday, November 23, 2015 - Libya What is the history of • An Italian colony until 1951. Libya? • 1951, Libya became a monarchy. • Oil in Libya made royal family very rich; no oil money is trickling down. • Monarchy falls with Gaddafi’s coup. What did Gaddafi do Gaddafi becomes the leader of Libya. when he became the • - Arab nationalist. leader of Libya? - Promises to cut ties with the West. - Stops selling oil to the West. - Wrote “The Little Green Book” where he wrote down his ideas for the Libyan government. Every Libyan had one. - Told everyone he was giving political power to the people. In reality, all the power was Gaddafi’s. - Kept control of Libya for 42 years. - Libya has 150 non-Arab groups. Forced them to change their names. What good things did - Did do good things, though: Gaddafi do? • built good healthcare system • created educational system • established equal rights for women • built roads, electric lines, water systems • supported terrorism around the world Who fought the • Massive military (Gaddafi’s army) vs rebel group military? • NATO sets up no-fly zone over Libya. What did NATO do? - UN calls on NATO. - NATO only supposed to be going over there to protect the civilians. - But NATO also dropped bombs on Gaddafi. - Ultimately, Gaddafi caught and killed. What has Libya been • Since then, total chaos. like since then? What - Problem: who replaces Gaddafi? Creates a power is the problem? vacuum. 11 Monday, November 23, 2015 Egypt How many revolutions - Two revolutions since 2011. Two presidents have been have there been in overthrown. Egypt? - Egyptians had been living under Mubarak since 1980. Who had Egyptians • Mubarak was a military general. been living under for 60 - Before the revolution, the last 3 presidents had been years? military generals. Had taken power with guns. Egyptians What is the population had been living under military generals for 60 years. - like? Young, unemployed, educated population What happened on - January 25, 2011: The Day of Revolution against January 25, 2011? Torture, Poverty, Corruption and Unemployment - Tahrir Square 100,000 people set up camp and lived there for 3 weeks. Became a little city. Started setting up bathrooms, schools, clinics. How did Mubarak - Mubarak sends in army. respond? - Like Tunisia, military said no more. What causes Mubarak - After army turns on him, Mubarak steps down. to step down? - A year later, elections were held and Morsi was elected What happened a year president. later? • Mohamed Morsi was part of the Muslim Brotherhood What political party political party. was Morsi a part of? • That political party had been banned by the 3 military presidents before the revolution. Video: Egypt Under Sisi Describe Egypt under - Third year anniversary of Day of Revolution on 1/25/11 Sisi as shown in the - Everything feels like it did the first time. video. - Sisi’s opposition is not allowed to go to Tahrir Square to protest. - Sisi’s supporters are allowed to march. - Muslim Brotherhood Protest/Anti-Coup Protest approaching Tahrir Square. • Police use tear gas - Protests against the new constitution Articles int he new constitution about military trials for • civilians and requiring permission to protest. - Anyone who criticizes the government is called a terrorist. - Constitution still passed. Most people voting yes to Constitution referendum. Saying if you say no you’re a terrorist. - Rebels themselves not invited to the celebration of the January 25th revolution. 12


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