The North and the South
The North and the South HIST 1311-010
Popular in US history to 1865
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Valeria Quintana on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1311-010 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Prof. Stephanie Cole in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see US history to 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
November 24 2015 The founding fathers were really worried about political parties, by the 1820’s, they had made their peace with them and accepted them as a part of the political climate Essay question: the civil war: was it avoidable or not??? The political system: the mistakes and the problems that existed: It did create a stability, because it lasted for 80 years. o The two party system worked o Between the years 1820-1850, politicians maintained a two party system that was the glue in the nation. Political Compromise before: o Missouri Compromise (1820 Necessary because before 1820, the US had added states. The 13 states kept adding states, first they would be organized into territories, than once they reached a population, they entered a statehood stage, After they would apply for a statehood into the US. o They came into the US in equal footing with the other ones. The northwest ordinance territories, had to reach population requirements, and the congress decided that the countries would not have slavery if they were in the north. This worked until Missouri. Many came from Kentucky. A lot of people wanted slavery, in 1819 they applied. This was controversial. o The governor applied for statehood, and they wanted slavery. o Another senator intervened and he did not want slavery. o Missouri entered as a slavery state, but they organized Main as a free state. o He created a 36-30 line. Missouri was the last state that had any territory would come as a free state The south would get to choose. o Nullification Crisis 1832 Calhoun was a vice president under Jackson He saw his state’s economy decline The rest of the country had need for tariffs, but these hurt states that had agricultural economies. South Caroline proposed nullification of Tariff bill However, through judicial review, it was established that the federal government was above state government. Jackson was on the side of the people, he worked with congress and decided with Henry Clay; they decided to lower tariff to 1816 numbers, but have to repeal the Nullification Act. South Caroline decided backed down, but legislature nullified the force bill. (was ultimately a meaningless action) o Second Party System (1836-1854) Whigs vs Democrats (1836-1854) o Whigs: inherited from Alexander Hamilton Active government: not clear idea of what it should do Help business: banks, internal improvements, or reaction to urbanization and help bring a perfect society (stop drinking, create nation with hard working values) o Wanted gov. for business reasons (manufacturers and cash crops wanted tariffs ) To reform society Business, large planters Protestants o Democrats: Andrew Jackson, he thought governments should not meddle in states’ rights. Small government Protect rights of commoners: some were worried that protestants because they wanted to get rid of beer and were meddling in their lives. Small farmers Workers Catholics Immigrants 2 party system: both parties had a national constituency o They needed a northerners and southerners to win. Both political parties avoided talking about slavery o United parties Tariff supported “gag” rule (1836): congress passed legislation from partisan support to NOT talk about slavery. They tabled it on principle, this was unconstitutional, but was in place until 1940’s. Created high voter participation. o Some people are not in agreement: women, slaves and free men Women abolitionists think it’s unconstitutional, so they continued to send petitions for abolitionists Challenges: o Non-voters Women abolitionists: they were passionate for abolition A lot of the signatures were campaigning for abolition passionately Runaway slaves eroded comity (comity is a constitutional principle) Runaway slaves took advantage of gag rule o Radical republicans took them in and sheltered them o “if you make it to the north, we will protect you” o Southerners were upset by this Third parties: liberty and free soil If soil is free, than independent men are needed o Would end up as anti-slavery because the men had to compete against slaves, and this hurt people who wanted to settle in the west. o Decline of system: (especially Whigs) Economic growth: US was growing economically, allowed manufactures to get more stable Tariffs stopped being important and they went down Internal improvements were agreed to be a good thing. All agreed that is was a good thing Whigs lost issues that helped them Rise in immigrants: these factors made a lot of people come to America In the 1840, many states let immigrants vote individual Immigrants were allowed to vote, so Whigs stopped the anti- immigrant speech o This created a American party: the know nothing party: nativism: had an effects of changing the minds of Whig voters o By the 1850’s, the Whig party ceased to exist because the voter base was diluted Decline of System o Westward expansion o According to Missouri Compromise, Texas had chance to be a slavery state. o In 1846, people saw the Mexican-American war as a chance to Civil disobedience arose Wilmot Proviso: said war was not controversial, but paying for war would come with condition that Texas would not have slavery This divided the party: every northerner voted for Proviso o Every southerner voted against this This signaled the end of the silence on the slave issue o Compromise of 1850: by Henry Clay and Daniel Webster (from Massachusetts) and Steven Douglass made into 5 pieces of Legislations Compromise of 1850: California comes in as free state Created fugitive slave clause strengthened, and they were now enforced o Fugitive slave clause would be enforced by federal funds o Popular sovereignty used New territory that was acquired , they would decide if they decided to be free or slave state Texas debt was forgiven, and border was established and limited No slavery in DC o 10/15 presidents owned slaves; Thereafter conflict increased: o Ostend Manifesto (1854) and filibustering December 1, 2015 The Whig and the Democrats were the dominating parties They both evaded the slavery topic Whigs backed off anti-immigrant rhetoric Women and free black population continued to push the slave topic Party politics and the coming of the civil war: 1850’s the political compromise was difficult Ostend Manifesto and filibustering Kansas-Nebraska Bleeding Kansas Caning of Charles Sumner Dred Scot Case Harper’s Ferry Election of 1860 Washington DC saw many slaves go through, so eventually slave trade in the capitol was outlawed. Henry Clay and Stephan Douglas in the 1850’s finding compromise was getting difficult Free soil free men: northerners did not want to have slaves in the west because they would not be able to compete Southerners wanted the “freedom” to take their property West expansion had the concept of “manifest destiny” of the USA: destiny to dominate and expand o 1850’s an American wanted to claim Nicaragua and some even wanted Mexico 1852 the president Pierce allowed the efforts to get Spain to turn Cuba over Ambassador James Buchanan helped to Spain didn’t want to sell, so they would either take it or buy it The papers were leaked, and the public cried over the lack of ethics (of the lack of negotiations) o He eventually backed off o New Mexico territory and Utah territory broke off from the 1820 compromise, and came o Nebraska and kanas territory was an unclear territory regarding slavery They were part of the unorganized territory, there were a lot of naïve Americans, and they allowed the newcomers to vote for or against slavery. Repealed the Missouri compromise line from 1820 o Missouri slave state people moved into the territory to be able to influence the vote They ran across the border The new Mexico and Utah territories were unlikely to support slavery People from Missouri went to vote for slavery in Kansas. Anti-slavery supporters sponsored anti-slavery settlers to move to Kansas and vote for anti-slavery These groups created tension o Border ruffians o Sacking Lawrence o Potawattamie creek o “crime against kanas” by Charles Sumner A senator said Kansas is bleeding because our hand, and blamed the ones that voted for popular sovereignty Weakened democratic party Got more involved in antislavery rhetoric o Angered Andrew Butlers nephew; who was from the south and believed he had to dual him Butler beat Sumner and got him into a come in the senate Southerners heard about this and they sent butler’s canes The north reelected Sumner even though he was in a coma By this point it was difficult to see the point of view from the other side o In 1856 James Buchanan was elected as president John Brown was an antislavery, went to a slavery settlement and killed 5 men Dred Scott Decision-1857 o Property of a surgeon o Eventually was free, but southerners did not like the method of how. o Roger Tony head of supreme court, was angry because of the method Scott was free Used the three-fifth clause Did not believe black people should have any rights, so they could not bring the case to the supreme court He decided that congress did not have the authority to dictate slavery in states and slavery was a national institution Freedom was local Slavery was national o Kansas that came to be as a slave territory, but many believed the vote was illegal One government in LeCompton in 1858 they write 2 constitutions one includes the protection of slavery in many ways in the state petition James Buchanan backs this state petition, even though this government was under questionable circumstances o Stephan Douglass defeated this state petition, and Kansas was not integrated in the slave state o While this is happening, John Brown thought that divine law supersedes the law of the nation He decided that political solutions would not work. 1859 came about with a plan; decided slavery would end with a slave rebellion Went to Virginia and seized a armory and the enslaved would be armed He was martyred in northern press However, he made mistake of not communicating with the enslaved. He seized control of armory, but the federal troops took it back He was tried for federal treason, he said he was a crime because he tried to act on behave on behave of a marginalized population o The north mourned him and the south was outraged; the south thought he was a traitor and did not understand why the north saw him as a traitor In 1860, the democrats met in Charleston, and did not come up with a nominee. o Democrats met again and eventually came up with Stephan Douglass, than Breckinridge and finally Bell. o Republicans put Abraham Lincoln; and he won because he had the minority votes The states that voter for Breckinridge succeeded Lincoln claimed that it was unconstitutional Than the civil war came about o South said war was because of slavery, north said it was because he wanted to end successions o In Lincoln’s cabinet, he had had rivals and republicans and democrats “team of rivals”; but he used their political ambitions won over Even though they were against Lincolns policies, he would get them to back down in public Coopetition between democrats and republicans were fighting in the north amongst them in the north. o In the north, there were no political parties. o The vice president in the south did not agree with succession They were disagreement among them, but political control was out of control Jefferson Davis the president, saw his cabinet come and go They had militia problems, desertion, food and uniform problems In the south, nobody had political control, so no politician was accountable for their actions (unlike in the south )
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