Notes Week 11-10-15
Notes Week 11-10-15 History 151, 22
Popular in Global History to 1500
Popular in History
This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacqueline Wiley on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 151, 22 at La Salle University taught by Professor Frassetto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Global History to 1500 in History at La Salle University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
I Muhammad Week of Notes 111015 Prof Frassetto 0 Received a series of revelations The rst in 610 He goes home and tells his wife what happened 0 She thinks he s nuts The more they talked about it the more she realizes that God chose him to be his preacher He began preaching in Mecca Message involved absolute devotion to one god and the giving of charity Mecca was a city that depended on a polytheistic shrine and populated merchant class 0 O O O This message did not go over well in Mecca He only had Khadija and Ali Muhammad s cousin who pretty much adopted him No one else really converted into lslam Abu Bakr was a leading citizen in Mecca who converted His reputation preceded him A town to the north of Mecca Medina the people were suffering social unrest During these times you might turn to a holy man to resolve this con ict 0 They turned to Muhammad They invited him to Medina 0 His Hijra to Medina in 622 0 Year 1 in the Islamic calendar The night that he left a conspiracy was that a plot to kill Muhammad was born To trick his enemies someone slept in Muhammad s bed to trick them Ali slept in his bed They lifted the covers saw it was a boy and let him live One of the greatest followers of Muhammad Muhammad settled the unrest in Medina Foundation of Umma a 5 Pillars of the Faith 0 Shahada Community of the faithfulbelievers 0 His people This becomes the beginning point of the political religious community of Islam 0 He returned to Mecca Over the next 68 years Muhammad fought a war against Mecca in order to go back Battle of Badr Great victory for Muhammad and his Muslims Battle of Uhud Not good for Muhammad 0 He was injured Battle of the Ditch The people of Mecca attacked Medina o Muhammad had the build a ditch lled with spears and stuff around Medina 0 Win for Muhammad He enjoyed repeated successes 0 Everyone loves a winner 0 He was able to attract and form alliances with tribes and other trade cities Became the most important gure in Arabia 0 By the end of the 6205Mecca was in a dif cult situation In 630 he entered the city of Mecca in triumph o Muhammad and Ali went to the Kabba and removed the idols and reconsecrated the Kabba to God Abraham built the Kabba and dedicated it to the one true God 0 He saw himself as the last of the true prophets of Abraham Muhammad died in 632 0 He left a legacy ISLAM O O quotThere is no God but God and Muhammad is his Prophetquot o Salat Prayer 0 5 times a day and communal worship on Friday 0 Zakat Charity 0 Sawm Fasting most importantly during Ramadan o Hajj Pilgrimage to Mecca Only conditional 0 Only go if you can a 6th Pillar o Jihad Commonly referred to as Holy War Participated in wars of expansion a Muhammad did forget something very important 0 Who was next to rule the Umma God chose Muhammad God didn t tell Muhammad who would rule after Muhammad thought he was the last Prophet o No one comes after him Maybe he actually believed that he was living at the end of time God was delivering his nal message preparing for the nal judgement Abu Bakr was eventually Muhammad s successor He was the rst adult male convert to Islam 0 As a result he gained great status in the movement Three ways to decipher who is going to take over 0 God Heredity Dynasty 0 Election Abu Bakr satis ed both of those conditions Consensus choice of the remaining leadership of the Umma Prominent leader in Mecca before conversion 0 Prominent leader after conversion 0 He was also the fatherinlaw of the Prophet 0 He did keep it in the family He was a very good choice 0 Another problem is that the Prophet is dead 0 As Muhammad made alliances with these tribal groups after he died the alliance ends They began to fall away the Great Riddah Looked like some of the members of the alliance would leave 0 Would a movement surive without the prophet 0 Yes He managed to hold everything together 0 Lead the Umma out of Arabia 0 The process of movement that would see the Umma spread pretty much everywhere 0 He was only Caliph until 634 when he died 0 He helped hold the Umma together 0 Help save the movement 0 Help drive it forward a Uthman the 3rel Caliph o HE was murdered in 656 Very bad 0 Revealed that there were still existing within the Umma 0 Moreover what about All HE became Caliph in 656 I All 0 lnvestiture at Ghadir Khumm What happened there 0 The Prophet said something to Ali identi ed Ali 0 What exactly was said 2 interpretations Muhammad recognized Alias an important companion important leaders of the Umma now and ever after Muhammad chose Alias his successor He proclaimed Ali to be his chosen heir 0 656661 Period of Civil War Not everyone agreed about his leadership 0 Battle of the Camel His wife didn t like him didn t trust him 0 She didn t think he was worthy 0 Many people died because of her and this battle 0 Who murdered Uthman though Most likely Ali 0 His failure to hunt down the murderers didn t look good for him 0 Raised suspicions Mu awiyah 0 Powerful leader cousin of the third Caliph Took it personally that Uthman was murdered He declared himself Caliph and it stuck 0 Big army lots of friends 2 Caliphs 0 Now what happens 0 We re going to negotiate Forced to compromise The problem was that those who supported Ali believed that he was divinely chosen 0 He was believed to be violating the will of God by compromising 0 Everything is just crazy 661 Ali was murdered by one of his former followers who believed he violated the will of God 0 2 consequences Mu awiyah wins Ali s faction didn t disappear He had 2 sons 0 Hussain who kept up the struggle against Mu aiwyah He and his followers were killed in the battle against Mu aiwyah The Ali ids didn t disappear They eventually become the Shi ites