European Power at It’s Peak (1871-1914)
European Power at It’s Peak (1871-1914) CRIM 405-002
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cailyn Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CRIM 405-002 at George Mason University taught by Andrew Novak in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Law and Justice Around the World in Criminology and Criminal Justice at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Week 13 12012015 European Power at It s Peak 18711914 0 The Second Industrial Revolution fosters continual transformation of European society 0 Art and culture characterized by skepticism toward inherited beliefs and methods 0 Imperialism of second half of nineteenth century sees new quality and reach of European colonialism creates massive tensions between European powers 0 WW1 will mark end of quotlong nineteenth centuryquot and usher in quotshort twentieth centuryquot Second Industrial Revolution 18701914 0 Mass production of steel Bessemer conversion process 0 Railroad expansion 0 Chemicals and synthesized chemicals being used on an industrial scale 0 Affects consumer goods 0 Raises awareness of using chemicals for war purposes 0 WW1 rst sees usage of chemical weapons in war 0 New techniques for labor and factories 0 Scienti c management system 0 Assembly lines 0 Increased productivity 0 Electricity 0 Electric streetlamps o Radios o Telegraphs Petroleum 0 First internal combustion engines 0 Widespread oil elds Uneven levels of growth around the world 0 United Kingdom leads as most industrialized followed by Germany and France United States and Japan are least industrialized Advancement of weaponry Emergence of a quotmass societyquot 0 Growth of consumer society 0 O O O O 0 Politics Consumerization Middle class becomes larger and larger and wealthier Option of purchasing on credit Huge increase of supply Department stores Rise in advertising to consumers Literacy increases Emergence of the quotyellow pressquot scandalstabloids How will the working class be fully integrated into society Marxist approach to politics divides 0 Edward Bernstein SPD Associated with revisionism in the Social Democratic Party of Germany Doesn t support Marxist idea that the working class would become so large and take over Bourgeoisie Takes path of evolutionary socialism a Work through existing political system to continues to improve the lives of workers from socialist perspective still with democratic ideas SPD becomes largest and most in uential Marxist party in Germany 0 Lenin Russian Communism Bolsheviks Revolutionary Marxism Rejected Bernstein s ideas Strive for absolute revolution Vanguard party a Representative of working class D Establish dictatorship of the proletariat to control means of production Bakunin Russian Anarchist o Rejected idea of any dictatorship of proletariat 0 Revolution should do away with government all together 0 Organic development of a society and govt o Propaganda by the deed Syndicalism 0 Form of socialism that replaces capitalism o Called for industries to be organized into confederations where industries owned and managed by workers 0 State would wither away in these contexts AntiSemitism o AntiJudaism vs AntiSemitism 0 Not on the basis of religion alone 0 Racial and cultural hostility o The Dreyfus Affair 18941906 0 O O O O 0 French Jew who was a captain in the army was convicted of treason Evidence was found that he was innocent during his sentence 1898 letter is written that declares this an act against Jews and wants government to reopen the case 1899 government reopens trial and becomes the center of attention in France Dreyfus is convicted again but later exonerated and reinstated as a major in French army Deeply divided French society around Jews in society 0 Vienna mayor Lueger is openly antiSemitist O O O O 0 Women New form of appealing to the masses Because he was so openly antiSemitist he was elected mayor Hitler was in uence by Lueger Populous racial politics Caught up in nationalist politics 0 Men and women were in two separate spheres of life 0 At this point in the 19th century this view starts to change 0 Women become engaged in various causes outside the house o Temperance societies 0 O Orphanage charities Nursing care 0 Women become more involved in the workforce as a necessity Changing images and cultural expectations of women 0 0 quotGibson Girlquot advertising directly to women paired with women becoming more prominent outside the house and more involved in society 0 Women s Social and Political Union in the UK 0 O O OO O 0 Most wellknown activist groups for women issues Lead by Emily Pankhurst 1903 waged a militant campaign for women s suffrage in the UK known for radical tactics quotsuffragettesquot Had the positive effect of attractive enormous publicity although negative Forced moderate movements to better themselves Outbreak of WWI leads to a suspension of these efforts to focus on the war and have domestic peace Given right to vote in 1930 Plenty of opposition to women s suffrage Religious reasons Moral and cultural reasons Sign of national weakness Charles Darwin 18091882 quotIt is not the strongest of the species that survives not the most intelligent that survives It is the one that is most adaptable to changequot British naturalist with theory of evolution Natural selection quotMan is descended from a hairy tailed quadruped probably arboreal in its habitsquot stirs major controversy 0 science vs religion removes human kind from its traditional privileged position in nature Sigmund Freud 18561939 quotIt is impossible to overlook the extent to which civilization is built upon a renunciation of instinctquot Id ego superego Id driven by pleasure principle impulses Superego internalized societal expectations morals values social norms Ego mediator between the id and superego conscious mind Mans behavior is subject to subconscious Friedrich Nietzsche 18441900 Deep critique of western civilization 0 Leads to suppressing primal urges which leads to psychological problems 0 Built upon Christian morality but saw this in a negative light Slave morality People would subordinate their own interests and place themselves as second to those around them Relativism o No absolute moral standards 0 quotGod is dead God remains dead And we have killed himquot 0 quotAll things are subject to interpretation whichever interpretation prevails at a given time is a function off power and not truthquot Raises the question of whether there is no more absolute truth All ideas challenge the enlightenment ideals Modernism in the Arts Break with representation and the elevation of expression Impressionism Vangoh Monet Picasso Edward Monks Usually have more profound meanings not as literal Spread of European Colonialism Imperialism lndustrial revolution gives Europe the edge in military and industrial power 0 Advanced maritime technology 1900 European power s formal and informal powers reaches peak China Opium trades with British are illegal and Chinese Imperial Court tries to stop it because they see it as European powers taking over Chinese 0 British react by waging wars against Chinese known as the Opium Wars 0 British compel china to sign treaties for further opium trade and seeding territories of China xed Chinese tariffs at a low rate granted extra territorial rights to foreigners in China Very favorable to British 0 Inaugurates era of unequal treaties 0 France Britain Germany Japan and Russia are in the Sphere of In uence in China Africa 1880s Africa is fairly lightly colonized but as a result of all of the developments and rivalries it starts scramble for Africa 0 All European powers recognize Africa as one of the last place for colonization Two leading powers are British and French Other European countries involved as well By 1900 the entire continent of Africa is fully colonized Occupation can be extremely brutal towards Africans 0000 Great power alliancemaking and road to war Creation of German Empire in 1871 upsets European balance of power Bismarck s skillful diplomacy strikes delicate balance until 1890 Dual Alliance between Germany and AustriaHungary Italy joins to form Triple Alliance Entente Cordiale between France and UK turns into Triple entente with addition of Russia Wild car the Ottoman Empire as the quotsick man of Europequot and the Balkan powder keg Military alliances in 1914 Central allies triple entente TAKE AWAY Second Industrial Revolution carries forward dramatic transformation of economy and society begun by First Industrial Revolution New political movements socialism anarchism women s suffrage take shape in new quotmass societyquot Period of imperialism sees European global dominance and escalation o rivalries Industrialization mass politics nationalism and industrialism set the stage for WWI
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