Chapter 4: Socialization and Self
Chapter 4: Socialization and Self SOC 100
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 100 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Christina Steidl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Art History at University of Alabama - Huntsville.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 4 Lecture Notes • Studying social interactions ○ Merton's role theory: provides vocabulary for analyzing social interactions § Status: recognizable social position that an individual occupies □ Achieved: something you did yourself □ Ascribed: titled assigned to you, like a daughter § Roles: duties and behaviors expected of someone who holds a certain status □ Role conflict: 2 roles in 2 statuses are in conflict □ Role strain: 2 roles in 1 status are in conflict • How do you learn these roles? ○ Socialization: process by which individuals internalize values, beliefs, and norms of societies and learn to function as members of society § Agents of socialization: families, school, peers, and media § Part of a process of developing a Self • Sex and gender ○ Sex: biological characteristics § Male or female § More complicated: nature- more than 2 sexes ○ Gender: social position, what is expected socially of people because of those characteristics § Man --> masculine § Woman --> feminine • Judith Lorber ○ Gender establishes patterns of expectation for people, orders our daily lives, and frames our identity • Body image and toys ○ Barbie's dimensions are impossible § G.I. Joe ○ Toys highlight feminine and masculine features • Bechdel test ○ Criteria that provides female's representation in TV and film ○ Test: § At least 2 female characters with names § Those 2 female characters must talk to each other § The conversation must be about something other than men ○ Representative: actually reflects sample of the population • Vocabulary for gender and power ○ Hegemonic masculinity: social practices that promote men and the subordinate position of women § Religion, media, culture, language § Emphasized femininity ○ Alternate femininities and masculinity: different ways social roles are influenced ○ Gender maneuvering: actions that disrupt the replication of complementary relations and meanings of masculinity and femininity § Blurs the line • Connecting gender and sex ○ Cisgender: majority of people § Describe people whose gender identity conforms with that typically associated with the sex to which they were assigned at birth ○ Transgender: gender identity doesn't conform with assigned sex and birth • Sexuality ○ Can refer to § Desire § Sexual preference § Sexual identity § Behavior ○ Patterns of sexuality vary over time and spaces • Research on sexuality - 1948 ○ Kinsey scale § 46% men in the US felt both homosexual and heterosexual feelings ○ World isn't divided into sheep and goats § There isn't just 2 sexualities • Sociological research: sexual activity ○ Does making a virginity pledge help prevent the spread of STD's among teens? § Delays onset of sexual activity and lower number of partners § but making the pledge doesn't reduce STD's In the heat of the moment, they are less prepared and less likely to use a condom “The Looking Glass Self” Cooley • What’s a self? ○ Set of concepts used to define who we are ○ We develop our self concept by assuming the point of view of our peers and imaging how they see us Reflected appraisals: evaluation and revision of our self concept through life “The Generalized Other” Mead • Play: teaches us to put ourselves in another person's shoes • Games: teaches us to keep in mind all of the players and what they're doing and how that constructs our actions Generalized other: the internalized sense of the expectations of an abstract other in a variety of settings - regardless of whether we've encountered these people before “Dramaturgical Theory” Goffman • Metaphor of social interacts as theater performances - including stage, roles, scripts, props, ect ○ Society assigns up our roles - based on our status § Learn basic story through socialization ○ Create the particulars together (improv) • Vocab ○ Front stage: audience ○ Back stage: privacy ○ Openings and closing: the beginning and end. Hellos and goodbyes ○ Given gestures: intentional ○ Given-off gestures: unintentional ○ Face: how individuals hold each other (can be role specific) ○ Audience protection: keeps "scene" going § Second hand embarrassment Civil inattention: politely ignoring “Gender Advertisements” Goffman • Men are portrayed as… Women are portrayed as… Physically active Passive alert Touching self Mean expression Sexy and available More space taken up Caressing object “Masculinity in Male Cheerleaders” Anderson • Orthodox masculinity ○ Want to be around the women ○ Couldn't make the football team, decided to help the women ○ Homophobic ○ Relies on tools of social norms to prevent violation of masculinity • Inclusive masculinity ○ Don't mind violating masculinity ○ Boundaries are more loose ○ Say they enjoy cheerleading and don't care if it makes them look gay Have better relationships with their female team mates “Skating Femininity” Finley • How do roller derby skaters engage in gender maneuvering? ○ Men = child care takers, cheer on women ○ Women = hurt, mean, cuss • Feminized aggression: showing off bruises, skull and cross bones with a pink bow, the names used by the skaters ○ Manipulate cultural meanings of gender ○ Redefines statuses: embrace pariah, love being bitches ○ Create contradictions in the complementary gender relations Male partners in supportive role “Learning from Drag Queens” Taylor & Rupp • Research the relative importance of sex and gender in how we respond with others • Troubled gender: when some gender doesn't fit as what we assume • Gender isn't black and white • Straight men were attracted to the drag queens ○ The drag queens could have full beards and have a high voice ○ Very confusing to some customers • Drag Queens can make men attracted to the by performing gender roles People associate gender with attraction
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