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Week 2 Lecture Notes for Bio 110

by: Monica Weisenbach

Week 2 Lecture Notes for Bio 110 BIO110

Marketplace > University of Massachusetts > Biology > BIO110 > Week 2 Lecture Notes for Bio 110
Monica Weisenbach
GPA 3.819
Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey

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About this Document

Here are the notes for Week 2 of Biology 110 taught by Christiane Healey. The lecture notes cover DNA, RNA, transcription and translation.
Introductory Biology for Science Majors
Christiane Healey
Class Notes
UMass, Umass Amherst, bio110, Biology
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Monica Weisenbach on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO110 at University of Massachusetts taught by Christiane Healey in Spring2015. Since its upload, it has received 127 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology for Science Majors in Biology at University of Massachusetts.


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Date Created: 01/30/15
Week 2 Beginning Questions Cone cells are photoreceptors TRUE Opsin is a protein that functions to convert light energy into chemical energy The answer depends on how far the reasoning goes the light energy is converted to chemical energy first and that is converted to electrical energy which goes to the brain Human cone cells each generally express one of three different cone cells TRUE all cells have the same instructions but different sets of instructions are active to create the different types of cone cells Proteins The cell is like a manufacturer The blueprint instructions are the DNA in the nucleus The managers intermediary molecules are the mRNA messenger RNA The raw materials building blocks are the amino acids The workers are the ribosomes And the final product is the protein The process from DNA to protein involves first transcription then translation Transcription always occurs in the nucleus and translation in the cytoplasm see below for explanation DNA DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid RNA stands for Ribonucleic Acid The story of DNA James Watson and Francis Crick are credited with discovering DNA figuring out the backbone and the pairs in their famous 1953 paper Less well known is Rosalind Franklin a crystallographer someone who looks at the structure of molecules who took pictures of the spiral of DNA in such a way that the length of the spiral could be ascertained This came about because a colleague of Franklin s showed her pictures to Watson and Crick which helped them The building block of DNA is a nucleotide A nucleotide is made of a sugar either ribose or deoxyribose a phosphate group and a base There are 4 bases adenine A guanine G cytosine C thymine T DNA only and uracil U RNA only The bases pair up in specific ways G and C m either A and T mA and U Many nucleotides create a gene which is a stretch of DNA that encodes a specific protein A DNA molecule aka a chromosome has many genes Human cells have 23 different chromosomes and two of each chromosome from your parents meaning 46 in total Another interesting note in many cases having an extra copy of a chromosome means the fetus will not develop but Down s Syndrome is caused by having three copies of chromosome 21 A codon is a set of three bases that codes for a specific amino acid of which there are 20 types It is always in terms of three bases such as AAA or GAT or CAT A peptide is a string of amino acids Transcription At the beginning of each gene there s a piece of promoter DNA that says start here The RNApolymerase starts at the promoter DNA copying one side of the DNA into a growing RNA string The RNA polymerase ends at a piece of DNA called the terminator DNA Translation The RNA string mRNA heads out of the nucleus through pores on the surface of the nucleus The pores are twoway In the cytoplasm a ribosome attaches to the mRNA The ribosome moves down the mRNA moving three letters at a time and reading those into the amino acid it codes for As the ribosome moves tRNA transport RNA carries the correct amino acid and drops it off in the correct spot in the chain DNA Protein gtgtgt mRN amino acid chain tRNA with a codon


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