Chapter 9: Race & Ethnicity
Chapter 9: Race & Ethnicity SOC 100
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 9 Lecture Notes Wage system is way better because accidents happen Workers experience more alienation because they sell their labor We operate in a meritocracy (rewards based on merit) Discrimination o Harmful or negative acts (not mere thoughts only) against people deemed inferior on basis of social category without regard to individual merit Statistical discrimination: judging individuals on basis of group average Women can't lift as much as men Gender equity: Di[rete and Buchmann 2013 o Gender equalitarian belief: belief that men and women should receive equal treatment and shouldn't be discriminated against basis of gender o Vertical inequality: inability to advance or move upward within organization or field More gender equalitarian belief, less vertical inequality o Horizontal inequality: segregation into different fields/positions (majors, occupations, firms within occupations, jobs within firms) Not linked to gender equalitarian belief The glass ceiling o Invisible limit on women's climb up the occupational latter (YMAY 315) o Causes: Employer discriminations (use of gender stereotypes) in hiring and promotion Structure of mentorship and professional development networks Social interactions are usually with the same sex group, meaning if a male is in power and asks the managers, who are also male, who he should promote they recommend people they know which is most likely to be males Actual interruptions in labor force participation Mother has a child and is pushed to take care of them instead of the father, there is no maternity leave Causes of gender pay gap o 45% of wage gap is due to differences in occupations and industries o Differences in experiences and qualifications is 10% Until the 1980s women had less education rates Interrupted labor force participation o Difference in rates of unionization --> women are less likely to work in fields that aren't unionized (cashiers, retail, nursing) is 3% o Racial composition of work force --> more diverse female labor force than men Is 2% o Employer discrimination in hiring/promotion/salary o Pay gap is $.91 per $1 If a man makes $150,000 a year, a female makes $13,000 less. Names and discrimination o Bertranal and Mullainathan o Sent matched resumes, 1 with a stereotypical black or white name White names were 50% more likely to be called back than other resumes o Name also affects what information you get, if the information is true, and how long it takes to get the information Perceptions of race, status and aggression o Holbrook Experiment 1,500 respondents, asked them to evaluate scenarios Characters with black or latino names are viewed as bigger and more threatening while white and asian weren't Some scenarios gave characters a status Black with low status were very large and scary than those with higher status Whites with low status weren't big or scary, but whites with high status were o Implies stereotypes are still relevant Sometimes not conscience Intersectionality o Concept used to describe the ways in which forms of oppression and discrimination are interconnected and can't be examined separately Can't look just at race o Wingfield Looking at glass escalator for black men Stereotypes of black men threaten the ability to form relationships with female colleagues and with predominately white male supervisors Implies men and women of color make less than their white counterparts Asians make more than whites, male and female Females always make lower than male counterparts Race and poverty o Poverty rates are higher among black americans If you're black you have a larger chance of experiencing poverty than if you're white (almost 2 times) o White americans constitute the majority of those in poverty If we look at who receives poverty based government assistance, the majority are white Mostly rural whites, where jobs haven't moved What is race o Group of people who share a set of characteristics typically, but not always physical once and are said to share a common bloodline o Race myth: socially constructed and changed over time Podcast o DNA tests show where your line geographically began o Out of 100 years, for 17 minutes your DNA is different from someone else's o Race: phenotype, how you look is how you're categorized o Racializaion: social and historical process where new racial categories emerge Creates new races in a society o Arab --> ethnicity o Muslim --> religion (25% black) Racism o Individual level Belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits Prejudice and discrimination o Institutional racism Institutions and social dynamics that may seem race-neutral, but actually disadvantage minority groups Which race has the most power Institutional racism: housing o "the house we live in" GI Bill: low interest mortgages for whites FHA red lining (based off of race) Community covenants/deed restrictions No selling to those who aren't white Block busting Real estate practice Get people to sell house White flight Urban property values drop because whites are leaving due to fear of property equity dropping Institutional racism: college admissions o Affirmative action: program began in the 60's to increase representation of under-represented groups )especially race and gender) in businesses and schools Outcomes aren't trustworthy, it's their background and struggles o 1978: regents university of california vs Bakke Can't have certain spots reserved for race, but race can be considered o 1996: Hopwood vs University of Texas No races, must be "colorblind" o The problems: use of weighted GPAs (from AP courses) is institutional racism Unviersity of Berkley accepted mostly whites 2003: Grutter vs Bollinger Can't cut students due to AP grades, but racial diversity, being on campus o Colorblind policies can stop diversity Colorblindness o Assumes racial inequality is driven by individual prejudice o Actually allows perpetuation of discrimination enables institutional racism to continue unchecked Textbook pg. 322-324, 332-337, 357-365 Race: group of people who share a set of characteristics - typically but not always, physical ones - and are said to share a common bloodline Racism: belief that members of separate races possess different and unequal traits Racialization: formation of a new identity by drawing ideological boundaries of difference around a formerly unnoticed group of people Ethnicity: one's ethnic quality or affiliation. It is voluntary, self defined, non hierarchal, fluid and multiple and based on cultural differences not physical ones per se Symbolic ethnicity: a nationality, not in the sense of carrying the right and duties of citizenship but of identifying with a part of future nationality. For later generations of white ethnics, something not constraining but easily expressed with no risks of stigma and all the pleasures of feeling like an individual Prejudice: thoughts and feelings about an ethnic or racial group Discrimination: harmful or negative acts (not mere thoughts) against people deemed inferior on the basis of the racial category without regard to the individual merit Institutional racism: institutions and social dynamics that may seem race- neutral but actually disadvantages the minority group “The Glass Escalator” Williams Men are less likely to enter a female dominated field than women are to enter a male dominated field Informal discrimination: sexual harassment and other forms of hostility o Gender-based stereotypes Men most likely don’t face work force discrimination Men get advantages in female dominated fields of work o Get promoted faster o Get managerial-type jobs Female and male coworkers don’t associate much with each other due to feelings of hostility Openly gay men see discrimination Men can encounter negative stereotypes in female dominated fields o Also a status step down “Race at Work” 23/25 whites get positive reactions from interviews 19/25 latinos get positive reactions from interviews 13/25 blacks get positive reactions from interviews Whites with felonies got more calla backs and positive reactions than blacks without a record “Fences and Neighbors” Segregation is declining but not disappearing If a person of color moved into a neighborhood, the whites would leave ASAP due to the fear of the colored members of the neighborhood would cause the value of the houses to drop The cities would then make maps of the city and residential areas o They were color coded The colors indicated if it was "Safe" to live and invest in the house/neighborhood o The colors were based off of how close the neighborhood was to blacks and latinos