Chapter 16: Sociology of Religion
Chapter 16: Sociology of Religion SOC 100
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 16 Lecture Notes Religion 0 System of beliefs and practices around sacred things 0 Sociologists might ask What purpose does religion serve in society what doe religions have in common How do they work How do they differ Similar How do people come to identify with a religion How are society39s religious beliefs relate to other institutions Functionalist Emile Durkheim Q What function does religion serve in society 0 Suggests religion plays an important role in building socia solidarity Socia solidarity degree and type of ties that nd people to one another Sacred symbols 0 Profane making something sacred normal and mundane 0 Sacred hoy things meant for special use and kept separate from the every dayprofane The US ag a cross Rituals O Patterned and repetitive and symbolic enactment of a cultural belief or value 0 During rituals Members of society came together They collectively engage in action that af rms group identity and recharges symbols continuous giving it meaning They experience coective effervescence Collective effervescence feeling of being a part of something bigger than ourselves Civil religion 0 Sacred beief so commonly accepted by most people that it becomes part of the nation39s culture Patriotism 4th ofJuly pledge of allegiance court rules I Symbols the ag eagle statue of liberty etc Con ict Karl Marx Q Who bene ts from religion 0 quotopiate of the massesquot Bourgeois39 attempt to keep the working class from rising Workers get happiness in after life in exchange for humility and acceptance of their exploitation in this life gt allowing bourgeoisies to pro t System of oppression Con ict Max Weber 0 Protestant belief contributed to development of capitalism 0 Work in vocation gt created hard workers 0 Predestination gt justi ed inequality 0 Live simply gt save money reinvestment Q But over time these religious purposes for our economic behaviors have been lost iron cage Structure of Christianity 0 Christianity Protestant Mainline Methodist Evangelical Baptists African american AME churches Catholic Orthodox Kurzman quotBin Laden and other thoroughly Modern Muslims 0 Islam lslamist Radical use force for religious law Al Qaeda Nonradical peaceful Traditionalist Distrust in science leaders all religiously educated Taliban Islamic liberals separate of mosques and state Diversity within Christianity 0 Differences between quotofficialquot beliefs of organization and the regular practices an individual adherents Catholics and birth control 0 Differences between stance of church Gay marriage Differences in opinion about whether or not Christian belief should shape US law Textbook pg 611627 Religion system of beliefs traditions and practices around sacred things a set of shared quotstoriesquot that guide belief and action Sacred holy things put to special use for worship and kept separate from the profane the sacred realm is unknowable so it inspires us with feelings of awe and wonder Profane things of mundane everyday life Theism worship of a god or gods as in Christianity Islam and Hinduism Ethicalism adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life like Buddhism and Taoism Animism belief that spirits are a part of the natural world Denomination big group of congregations that share the same faith and are governed under one administrative umbrella Congregation group of people who gather together especially for worship Secularism general movement away from religiosity and spiritual belief toward a rational scienti c orientation a trend adopted by industrial nations in the form of separation of church and state Pluralism presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society Sacred canopy Peter Berger39s term to describe the entire set of religious norms symbols and beliefs that express the most important thing in life namely the feeling that life is worth living and that reality is meaningful and ordered not just random chaos Evangelicals members of any denomination distinguished by 4 main beliefs the Bible is without error salvation comes only through belief ofJesus Christ personal born again experience is only path to salvation and others must also be converted They proselytize by engaging with wider society Fundamentalists religious adherents who follow a scripture using a literal interpretation of its meaning
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