Psychoactive, Deppressants, and Hallucinogen Plants
Psychoactive, Deppressants, and Hallucinogen Plants PBIO1030
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Steven Hernandez on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PBIO1030 at Ohio University taught by Dr. Thompson in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Plants and People in Biomedical Sciences at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Monday October 19 2015 PBIO Psychoactive Plants Stimulants Coca Cola Since 1929 Coke has been cocainefree yay Khat Used as stimulant for centuries in Yemen and surrounding countries Yemen s most important cash crop with environmental consequences Active compounds released by chewing and absorbed into oral mucosa Effect decreases three days after harvest reason why it s not a global phenomenon Monday October 19 2015 Physical and Social effects increased sociability talkative alert euphoric insomnia increases BP pupils dilate Women less involved in production responsible for other agricultural activities which often lose out over khat production Affects family and economic growth Addictive leads to malnutrition gastritis impotence and social problems Interactions with ampicillin lowers effectiveness of some medications Ephedra Earliest exhibit of plant understanding Neanderthal man who was buried with the plant Chinese version Ma huang Native americans used it as a tea to prevent bleeding etc Ephedrine alkaloids are vasoconstrictors banned by FDA in 2004 Street drugs Adverse negative effects or Methampheta mine eCStaSy Putnam Em MM 8quot Dated pupa speed O vo ho 39 a m mama Mm Gmang of hen Mostly made out of a mquot quot quotW 43qu om 39 Sun combination of om quot cwuocy Nu39nbs Hm blood prom Renoirwry MO methamphetamine s mm Vme mm Swan 0 atom m 5398 Math mwy 39 Chm mm Sumo couch quot396 m My gum quotcan mawmuts Conhncon Chest pan bemused Duhxangmm Nquot m fy Cum 398quot 39 ummn Had sud Loss 01 00mm momma Pam attacks UVquot KIM Dom I Dan Monday October 19 2015 Caffeine Highest percentage of caffeine found in llex guayusa holly tree in amazon up to 76 of caffeine in leaves 1 cup of tea 5 cups of coffee isolated amazonian jungles of Peru Ecuador Part of tradition forActuaI Jivaro males New Guinea Centres or 0090 of 39 food production 0 I his most productive amoral areas of the modem wood Wednesday October 21 2015 PBIO Depressants Depressants Effects Feeling of wellbeing Calming Hypnosis Analgesia Coma Death Characteristics Additive Antagonistic Dosage effects Dependency Latex part of Poppy plant used for self defense Opium Use timeline 1 First used by people of middle east lndia massproduces opium under England Introduces tobaccobased opium in China 2 3 4 25 of China was addicted to opium 5 Two sets of Opium Wars as Chinese attempt to try and end opium trade 6 Finally opium trade in the 1913 s ends due to moral pressure Wednesday October 21 2015 7 Chinese addiction to opium did not end until rise of People s Republic of China Used medically in ancient Greece and Rome Hippocrates acknowledged its usefulness as a narcotic 460 BC Arabian traders introduced it to China abut 1st century AD Middle Ages used as a teething syrup for young children 1527 Laudanum opium in alcohol introduced as a pain killer but reached its beak in 1800 s Opium reay costeffective Often only choice for remedy for the poor Opium Wars Ming Empire forbade tobacco use opium smoking increased 1729 opium smoking prohibited in China except medicinal purposes Great Britain forced China to buy opium Hong Kong created Once China tries to destroy opium GB eneters war China destroyed 1913 opium trade ends through moral pressure Other Opiates Morphine soldier s disease during the Civil War Heroin introduced by Bayer in 1898 thought to be the alternative to morphine high addiction rate by 1903 six times greater than morphine Wednesday October 21 2015 1917 no longer in cough syrup Codeine Oral analgesic painkiller need a prescription schedule 3 Withdrawal Effects Sweating Shaking lnsomnia Vomiting Chills Goosebumps increased respiration Diarrhea Regulation of Opium in the US States imposed their own laws in 1890 1909 Smoking Opium Exclusion Act first Feral law in the US banning nonmedical use of a substance medical uses still permitted Alcohol and Caffeine You re drunk but still tired Motor coordination and reaction times are impaired but you don t really feel it Caffeine masks sensory cues leading to high consumption of the alcohol Wednesday October 21 2015 Energy drinks contain high caffeine amounts and are mixed with drinks of higher alcohol content Friday October 23 2015 PBIO Hallucinogens Solanaceae Plant Family Peyote a hallucinogen One of the earliest N Am hallucinogens Chewed and swallowed or as bitter drink Effects Nausea chills Hallucination does not necessarily relieve pain Ergot Fungus Claviceps purpurea parasitizes growing kernels of rye wheat grasses Effects gangrene spreads from digits through limbs painful spasms fingers tingle vomiting and diarrhea visions of being on fire and attacked by monsters St Anthony s fire During middle Ages epidemics killed thousands of people Women executed for witchcraft by ergot from moldy grains Friday October 23 2015 LSD Drug synthesized by ergonovine Enhances serotonin a neurotransmitter that regulates body temp sleep sensory perception Argued to be the most powerful psychic drug known 4000X more powerful than mescaline sold as small tablets or gelatin squares Effects are very disorienting sights become sounds relive post loss of normal perception boundaries extreme mood changes quot I 1 394 m 25 mks 5 hrs 45 min a hoq rp 9 Friday October 23 2015 Marijuana THC Tetrahydrocannabinol binds to receptors in the brain and in the gut lmpairs ability to process and store information short term memory Respiratory effects shortness of breath chronic cough chest tightness lower coordination impairs driving ability artificial selection of plants can lead to higher THC levels in modern drugs Tolerance can develop but withdrawal symptoms are less severe than other drugs