Chapter 22: Descent with Modification
Chapter 22: Descent with Modification BYS 120
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BYS 120 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Luciano Matzkin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Huntsville.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 22 Lecture Notes Processes of science 0 quotnothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolutionquot 0 Seeks natural causes for natural phenomena 0 Scope of science limited to study of structures and processes that we can observe indirectly or directly to measure 0 Discovery science Observations and descriptions O Hypothesis driven science Scienti c method 0 Facts are prerequisites of science Veri able observations Repeatable experimental results 0 Science advances when new theory ties together several observations and experimental results 0 Scienti c theory is broad in scope more comprehensive than hypothesis 0 Theories only widely accepted in society if supported by a lot of evidence Interactions and emergent properties 0 Novel properties emerge at each step upward O Emergent properties result from interactions between components Total greater than sum B Cell more than arrangement of molecules Emergent properties of life act as a hierarchy EX Adaptation of Drosophila Melanogasta to temperaturehabitats O Flies taken from FL and VT 0 Organisms adapt genetically to their environment 0 Northern environment have fewer resources in the winter VT ies vials with and without food FL ies vials with and without food O VT ies have greater starvation resistance than FL ies Occurred in only 100 years Genetically changed how ies stored fats Before Darwin 0 Organisms as unchanging entities O Scala natural scale of nature Humans at the top plants at the bottom Aristotle Appears as a latter 0 Carolus Linnaeus 17071778 Binomial naming species I Genus and species 0 George Curvier Different species in different strata Catastrophism mass extinction and organisms were quotresetquot Organisms do not change 0 James Hutton and Charles Lyell Principle of uniformism mechanisms of change are constant 0 Thomas Malthus Principles of population growth I What keeps populations down I Forces that keep population size down 0 JeanBaptiste de Lamarck Species change over time Inheritance of acquired traits I If you cut your arm off you child will be born without an arm Charles Darwin 18091882 0 Naturalist O HMS Beagle 18311836 Ship traveling southern hemisphere 0 Observed and collected plants and animals 0 Examined the environmental adaptations of species 0 Linked adaptations to the origin of species Origin of species O In Darwinian view the history of life is like a tree with branches representing life39s diversity 0 Darwin39s theory meshed well with the hierarchy of Linneaus 0 All extant living species have evolved from prior forms 0 Natural selection is Passed in an individual39s inherited traits that allow it to reproduce at a higher rate greater tness in a given environment relative to other member39s of its own species 0 Linked to observations of variation in traits to survival and reproduction 0 Natural selection vs arti cial selection Arti cial dog breeding and farming Evolution 0 Occurrence of evolutionary change in a undisputable fact 0 Today an overwhelming amount of empirical dataevidence supporting Darwin 0 Modern day biologists evolutionary seek to understand the living world at many scales in an evolutionary framework EX Drug resistance 0 Staphyloeoccus aures is present in many humans without negative a ects 0 Certain strains mostly Methicillin resistant S aures MRSA can be very dangerous Flesheating bacteria that is unstoppable with normal antibiotics 0 Evolution PCN was used so much in the 194039s By 1945 PCN resistant bacteria began to emerge Mutations in a detabactamse gene already present in bacteria incurred the resistance By 1959 a more powerful antibiotic was used Methicillin MCN Mutations at other genes circumvented the effects Cell wall synthesis of MCN Some antibiotics either break down cell walls MCN or stop ribosome production Key points of evolution 0 Populations evolve not individuals 0 Evolution isn39t directed 0 Doesn39t tend to create new genes it works with what39s already present 0 Environment can play a major role in evolutionary change Evolutionary trees 0 Given common ancestry we can create trees Visualize process of evolution