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Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea

by: Amelia Notetaker

Chapter 27: Bacteria and Archaea BYS 120

Amelia Notetaker
GPA 3.88

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About this Document

Chapter 27 notes.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Luciano Matzkin
Class Notes
Biology, uah, Bacteria, archaea, darwin, notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BYS 120 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Luciano Matzkin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Huntsville.


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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 27 Lecture Notes  Prokaryotes o Earth's first organisms were likely prokaryotes o Unicellular o Cell wall  Cell wall of prokaryotes o Bacterial cell walls contain peptidoglycan  Sugar polymers cross-linked by polypeptides  Peptidoglycain testing o Grew strains used to classify bacteria by cell wall composition o For bacteria  Gram positive: bacteria have simpler walls with a large amount of peptidoglycain  Gram negative: bacteria have less peptidoglycain and an outer membrane that's toxic  Made up of lipopolysaccarides outer membrane  Motility o Many bacteria have ability to move toward or away from stimulus (taxis) o Chemitaxis: movement toward or away from chemical stimulus o Most motile bacteria propel themselves by flagellum  Flagellum of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes are composed with a different protein, this suggests o It evolved independently  Origins of prokaryotic flagellum o Flagellum is composed of different proteins and likely evolved indepedently o Flagella proteins are modified versions of proteins that perform other tasks in bacteria o Likely evolved as existing proteins  Inside prokaryotes o Lack organelles o Some species can contain infoldings of plasma membrane  DNA structure o Prokaryote genome is much smaller o Circular chromosomes o Chromosomes are not surrounded by membrane (no nucleus) o Some species of bacteria also have smaller rings of DNA called plasmids  Reproduction o Reproduce through binary fission  Splits into 2 o Reproduce only 1-3 hours, some every 20 minutes  Genetic diversity o Prokaryotes have a great amount of genetic variation o 3 factors contribute to this genetic diversity  Rapid reproduction  Mutation  Genetic recombination  Mutation rates o Mutation rate is not dramatically high  e coli per gene is 10^-7 o Rapid reproduction allows from the occurrence of many mutation events  Given 1 hour if you start with one cell, after one day you'll have 16 million cells o High diversity from mutation allows for rapid evolution  Genetic recombination o Combining DNA from 2 sources o Contributes to bacterial diversity o DNA from different individuals can be brought o Horizontal gene transfer: between different species gene exchange occurs  Transformation o Uptake of DNA from surroundings o Could be from its own species or another o Could be incorporated into the genome o Antibiotic resistance  Transduction o Movement of gene between bacteria by phages  Conjugation o Transfer of genetic material  How prokaryotic cells evolve o DNA transfer is one way o A donor cell attaches to a recipient by a pelis, pulls it closer, and transfers DNA o Piece of DNA called the fertility factor (f factor)  F factor o Cells containing the f plasmid function as DNA donors during conjugation o The f factor is transferable during conjugation o The f factor can be built in the chromosome (raises frequency of recombination of Hfr recombinant)  Metabolic diversity o Prokaryotes can inhabit a incredibly diverse set of environments o Phototrophs: get energy from the light o Chemotrophs: get energy from chemical reactions o Autotrophs: energy from a carbon source, like CO2 o Heterotrophs: energy from organic compounds  Prokaryotes metabolism and oxygen o Obligate aerobics require O2 for cellular respiration o Obligate anaerobics: powered by O2 and use of fermentation for anaerobic respiration o Faculative anaerobes can survive with or without oxygen  Prokaryotic metabolism and Nitrogen o Prokaryotes can metabolize Nitrogen in a variety of ways  Nitrogen Is essential for amino acids and nucleic acids o In nitrogen fixation some prokaryotes convert atmospheric nitrogen (N2 and ammonia (NH3))  Cooperation o In cyanobacteria, Amabaena, photosynthetic cells, and Nitrogen fixing cells called heterocysts exchange metabolic products o Biofilms  Surface-locating colonies  Found of the surface of teeth  Phylogeny of prokaryotes o Traditionally, prokaryotes were characterized by how they look, grow, and what type of media you can grow them on o Majority of them cannot be cultured in a lab o New molecular techniques have made it possible to sequence genes and even genomes from unaltered species o Metagenomics: multiple genomes are sequenced and then separated using computer algorithms  Archaea o Extreme habitats: halophiles, live in high saline environments o Extreme temperatures: termophiles, live in very hot environments  Even high pressure o Methanogens: live in swamps, marshes, Gastrointestinal tracts and produce methane as a waste product  Poisoned by oxygen  Important for sewage treatment  Bacteria o Diverse mututional types  Pathogens to beneficial types  Proteobacteria o Gram-negative o Include photo-autotrophs, chemo-autotrophs, and heterotrophs o Alpha proteobacteria: living ancestor of mitochondrion  Chlamydia o Parasites that live within animal cells o Not always an STD  Spriochetes o Helical heterotrophs o Tyeponema pallium: syphillis and lime disease  A bacteria contains an antibiotic resistance gene in plasmid R and F. how does it transfer genes to other bacteria? o Conjugation  Cyanobacteria o Generate oxygen o Photo-autotrophs  Gram-positive bacteria o Smallest known cells. o Anthrax, strep throat, and staph  Nutrient cycling o Prokaryotes play a major role in recycling of chemicals elements  Ecological interactions o Can live with large organisms in symbiosis o Mutualism, commensalism, and parasitic (pathogens)


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