Chapter 28: Protists
Chapter 28: Protists BYS 120
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BYS 120 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Luciano Matzkin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Huntsville.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 28 Lecture Notes General features of protists O Eukaryotic Have organelles and more complex 0 Most are unicellular but there are some colonial and multicellular Q Can reproduce sexually and asexually O Vast amount of structural and functional diversity More than any other group of eukaryotes 0 Very complex cells 0 Nutritionally diverse Photoautotrophs Contain chloroplasts Heterotrophs Absorb organic molecules and ingest food Mixtrophs Both Endosymbiosis in protists 0 One organism engulfs another creating a stable relationship 0 Mitochondria evolved alpha proteobacteria O Plastids from cyanobacteria 0 Red and green alga where themselves engulfed while already in a cell Phylogenetic relationship 0 Given phylogenetic narrative relationship is complex 0 Many uncertainties remain 0 Five supergroups Excavata O Diplomonads Derive energy from anaerobic biochemical pathways I 2 equalsized nuclei and multiple agella O Parabasalids Causes yeast infections in females Trichomonas vaginalis O Euglenozoans Predatory heterotrophs photosynthetic autotrophs and parasitic Kinetroplastids Single mitochondria Sleeping sickness Trypanosoma from the quotkissing bugquot in humans Trypanosomes 0 Evade immune system by switching surface proteins Frequent changes prevent immunity 0 Euglenids Have 1 or 2 agella that emerge from a pocket at one end of the cell mixotrophs O Characterized by cytoskeleton 0 Some have a feeding groove Chromoalveolata O Alveolata what Membrane bound sacs alveoli just under plasma membrane Function unknown Dino agellates D 2 agella and cell reinforced by cellulose plates Abundant in marine and freshwater Pytoplankton Causes toxic quotred tidesquot Apicomplexans Parasites of animals One end apex containing complex organelles specialized for penetrating host cells and tissues Most sexual and asexual stages that require 2 or more different host species B Plasmodium One that causes malaria Requires mosquito and human to nish a life cycle 900000 people die from this each year Cilicites I Use cilia to move and feed Large macronuclei and small micronuclei Genetic variation from conjugation Stramenopiles Hairy agellum paired with a smooth agellum Diatoms Unicellular alga with 2part glasslike wall of hydrated silica Reproduce asexually and occasionally sexually Component of phytoplankton highly diverse Dead individuals fall to the ocean floor and decompose 0 Carbon sink D Brown alga Largest and most complex alga All are multicellular and most marine 0 Kelp Complex multicellular anatomy Algal body is plantlike but lacks true roots stems and leaves and is called a thallus Reproduce through alternation of generations OAIternation of multicellular haploid and diploid forms Heteromorphic generations are structurally different while isomorphic generations look similar Diploid sporophyte produces haploid agellated spores called zoospores multicellular diploid ln sporangia haploid cells are released into the ocean Zoospores develop into haploid female and male gametophytes which produce gametes Fertilization of gametes results in a diploid zygote which grows into a new sporophyte Oomycetes Water molds white rusts and downy mildew Decomposes and parasite ecological impact can be great as in potato blight by phtophytora infectation O Monophyletic and originated by a secondary endosymbiosis event Red alga Organism that39s unicelluar and heterotrophic lt39s motile by short extensions and has well developed organelles It also has one large nuclei and one small Most likely to be in what group O Ciliates Conjugation and reproduction O Micronuclei diploid Rhizanians 0 Move using pseudopodia Extensions of cytoplasm anchors it and then drags the rest of the body 0 Radiolarians Mostly marine Symmetrical internal skeleton most of silica Pseudopodia to engulf microorganisms O Foraminiferans multichamberal shells tests Pseudopodia extends through pores in the test Endosymbiont with alga O Cercozoan Amoeba and protists Threadlike agellums Archaeplastida O Plastid derived from cyanobacteria 0 Red alga Red because of accessory pigment phyceoythrin Multicellular largest are seaweeds 0 Green alga Green chloroplasts Charophytes Closely related to land plants Chlorophytes Fresh water and marine Symbionts in lichens Large size achieved by Colonies of individual cells Formation of true multicellular bodies by cell division of nuclei with no cytoplasmic division Unikonta O Amoebozoans Slime molds Plasmodial slime molds form large multicellular aggregates in which cells are separated by their membranes 0 Made up of individual organisms Ecological role of protists 0 Large component of phytoplankton 30 of earth39s photosynthesis Food for many 0 Direct relationship with other organisms Predators parasites mutualists Gelatinous seaweed growing in shallow cold water and is closely related to diatoms What is it 0 Brown aga