New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 31: Fungi

by: Amelia Notetaker

Chapter 31: Fungi BYS 120

Amelia Notetaker
GPA 3.88

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Chapter 31 notes.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Luciano Matzkin
Class Notes
Biology, uah, fungi, darwin, notes
25 ?




Popular in Organismal Biology

Popular in Biological Sciences

This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BYS 120 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Luciano Matzkin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Huntsville.

Popular in Biological Sciences


Reviews for Chapter 31: Fungi


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 31 Lecture Notes  Fungi o Over 100,000 described species  Fungal ecology o Heterotrophs o Use enzymes to break down complex molecules into smaller organic compounds o These enzymes are very versatile, which contributes to fungi's ecological success o Can be  Decomposers  Parasites  Mutualists  Predatory  General structure of fungi o Most uncommon body structure are multicellular filaments and single cells (yeast) o Some species grow as either filaments or yeasts; others grow as both o The morphology of multicellular fungi enhances their ability to absorb nutrients o Consist of mycelea, networks of branched hyphae adapted for absorption o Mycelluim's structure maximizes its surface area-to-volume ratio  Hyphae o Cell walls contain chitin o Most fungi have hyphae divided into cells by septa, with pores allowing cell-to-cell movement of organelles o Septate hyphae o Coenocytic fungi lack septa o Have continuous cytoplasmic mass with 100's or 1000's of nuclei  Hyphae of fungal mutualists o Mycorrhizal fungi have a mutualistic relationships with plants o Have specialized hyphae called haustoria that allow them to penetrate the tissue of their host  General like cycle of fungi o Fungi propagate themselves by producing vast number of spores either sexually or asexually o Fungi can produce spores from different spores from different types of life cycles  Asexual reproduction o Many can reproduce sexually  Only some o Molds produce haploid spores by mitosis and form visible mycelia  Bread mold o Some yeasts can reproduce asexually or sexually  Depend on conditions o Single cell fungi o Asexually reproduce by simple cell division and the pinching of "end cells" from a parent cell  Sexually reproduction o Normally haploid with exception of transient diploid stages formal during sexual life cycles o Requires fusion of hyphae or cells from different mating types o Use sexual signaling molecule (pheromones) to communicate mating type o Under appropriate conditions when cell from different mating types meet they will fuse o Plasmogamy: union of cytoplasm from 2 parent mycelia  Not fusion of nuclei o In most fungi the haploid nuclei from each parent don't fuse right away, they coexist in the mycelium  Heterokaryon o In some fungi the haploid nuclei pan off to a cell, such as mycelium is said to be dikaryotic  Life cycles o Diploids can only go through meiosis During karyogamy, the haploid fuse, producing diploids  Long time can pass until fusion o Diploid is short lived and undergoes meiosis producing haploid spores o Paired processes of karyogamy and meiosis produce genetic variation  Fungal evolution o Oldest fossils only 460 MYA o Molecular analysis suggests fungal/animal split was about 1 BYA o Microsporidia: spore producing unicellular parasites of animals and protists o Tiny organelles derived from mitochondria but not conventional mitochondria o Basis of fungi today o Fungi were earliest colonies of land and probably formed mutualistic relationships with protists and early land plants  "-cetes" suggest fungi  When does meiosis occur in fungi? o Following fusion of nuclei  Chytrids o Found in fresh water and terrestrial o Decomposers, parasites, and mutualists o Supports hypothesis emerged early in evolution o Unique because they have flagellated spores  Zoospores o Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis might be causing recent decline in amphibians  Zygomycetes o Exhibits great diversity o Produce sexually --> zygosporangia  Site of karyogamy and meiosis  Resistant to freezing and drying and survive unfavorable conditions o Black bread mold  Hyphae are coenocytic o Sexual reproduction o Pilobolus can aim sporangia toward conditions associated with good food sources  Glomeromycetes o Form arbuscular mycorrihizae  Hyphae "sneaks" into cells and get through cell walls (not membrane) then grows a small tree-like structure against the membrane of the plant o Ectomycorrihizal  Grows hyphae over a root and into extra cellular spaces of root cortex  Related to bacteria that fix N2  Asocomycetes o Live in marine, fresh water, and terrestrial o Sac-like asci contained in fruiting bodies called ascocarps  Also called sac fungi o Form unicellular yeasts and cup fungi and molds o Plant pathogens, decomposers, symbionts, and predatory o Arthobotys  Predatory  Use pheromones and hyphae shaped as a loop.  Pheromones attract organisms who get excited because of the smell, the organism swims into the loop and is strangled then decomposed by enzymes o Reproduce asexually with conidia  Basidomycetes o Include mushrooms o Club-like structures (basidium) transient diploid stag in life cycle  Called club fungi o Many are decomposers o Long-lived dikaryotic mycelium o Mycelium reproduces sexually by producing fruiting body (basidiocarps) o Numerous basidia in BC are sources of sexual spores called basiospores  You have several unknown organisms and you think one is a fungus, how do you determine if it is or not? o Presence of chitinous cell wall  Animals that have diploid cells and attract a mate. What life stage does a fungus accomplish this? o Haploid hyphae  Fungus farming o Leaf-cutter ants don't eat the leaves  Chop plants up and bring to nest  Brings to a fungus garden in nest that feeds on this and decompose the plant matter  The ants then trim the fungi so it always feels as if it is in a good environment  Some of these fungi are only found in association with ants  Ecological importance: decomposers o Efficient decomposition of organic material  Cellulose and lignin o Perform recycling  Mutualists o Mycorrihizae o Ants o Lichens  Symbiotic association between photosynthetic microorganisms and fungi  Millions of photosynthetic cells held in fungal hyphae  Pathogens o 30% of known species are parasitic or pathogens  Mostly for plants o Human fungal pathogens  Ring worm (athlete's foot)  Vaginal yeast infections  Predators o Arthrobotrys


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Amaris Trozzo George Washington University

"I made $350 in just two days after posting my first study guide."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.