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Chapter 32: Animal Diversity

by: Amelia Notetaker

Chapter 32: Animal Diversity BYS 120

Amelia Notetaker
GPA 3.88

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Chapter 32 notes.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Luciano Matzkin
Class Notes
Biology, animal, diversity, uah, darwin, notes
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BYS 120 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Luciano Matzkin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Huntsville.

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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 32 Lecture Notes  Animals o Multicellular eukaryotes o Heterotrophs o 1.3 million described species  General characteristics o Cells lack cell walls o Multicellular bodies are held together by structural proteins (collagen) o Nervous and muscular tissue are a unique characteristic of animals o Tissues: groups of cells that have a common structure, function or both  Reproduction o Most animals reproduce sexually o Diploid stage is usually the dominant stage  No sporophyte or gametophyte stage o After the haploid sperm fertilizes the haploid egg, a zygote (diploid) is formed  Development o Rapid cell division without cell growth that occurs after fertilization is called cleavage  Half then half then half o Cleavage leads to formation of a multicellular hollow blastula  Cells migrate towards the edge o Many animals at least have 1 larval stage  Larval --> diploid o A larva is sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adults o Larva undergoes metamorphosis, the reorganization of larval tissue into juvenile  Caterpillar cocoon o Juvenile resembles an adult but isn't sexually mature  Gastrulation o Blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming a gastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues  Folds and creates wrinkles  Produces different organs, tissues, etc  hox genes also tell what cells fold in what direction  Patterning genes o Only animals (most) have hox genes that regulate the development of body form  Animal evolution o Great diversity of extant species  99% of animals are extinct o Common ancestor of living animals may have lived between 675-800 MYA o Ancestor may have resembles modern choanoflagellates o Edicaran  Early members of the animal fossil record include the edicaran biota (565-550 MYA) o Cambrian explosion  535-525 MYA, marks earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals  Why rapid radiation?  Predator/prey interaction  Evolution of offensive and defensive structures  Evolution of hox genes  Changes in atmosphere conditions  Increase in O2, allows complex metabolisms that allow production of hard body parts  Palozoic o Animal diversity continued to increase through this time period  Several mass extinctions o Transition to land by 460 MYA o Vertebrates transition to land 360 MYA  Mesozoic o 251-65.5 MYA  Coral reefs  Dinosaurs dominated terrestrial habitats  Mammals evolve  Angiosperms and insects diversify  Cenozoic o Mass extinction o Mammals filled in all the vacated niches  Asteroid impact and extinction o Extinctions likely occurs "immediately" after the impact  Body plan o Set of morphological and developmental traits  Use to categorize animals  Symmetry  Tissue development  Order of developmental stages (steps)  Radial symmetry o With no front or back or left or right  "slice" it any way and it's symmetrical o Radial animals are often sessile and planktonic  Sessile: doesn't move much  Bilateral symmetry o 2 sided:  Dorsal and ventral sides  Left and right sides  Anterior and posterior sides o Develop central nervous system in head, cephalization o Often move actively and have a central nervous system  Tissue development o Animal body plans also vary according to the organization of the tissues o Tissues are isolated collections of specialized cells o Not found in sponges o 3 types  Ectoderm: germ (outside) layer covering the embryo's surface  Mesoderm: middle layer  Endoderm: inner most, lines developing digestive tube called archenteron o Diploblastic: animals with only ectoderm and endoderm  Comb jellies o Triploblastic: animals with all three layers  All bilaterians  Vertebrates, arthropods, worms  Body cavities o Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity o A true body cavity is called a coelom, it’s derived from mesoderm, also is lined by mesoderm o Coelom can b used for structural support as well as housing of the protection and isolation of organs and such o Triploblastic animals lacking a body cavity are called acoelomates  Flat worms Pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from mesoderm and endoderm  Triploblasts with these are called pseudocoelomates o Coelomates are triploblasts that possess a true coelom Bilateral symmetry is least associated with what? o A sessile condition  Triploblastic animals o All have endoderm, mesoderm, and ectoderm  Early embryonic development o Most animals can be classified as having either of 2 types of development  Protostome  Mollusks, annelids  Dueterostome  Echinoderms, chordates, humans  Protostomes o Cleavage  Spiral and determinant  Rotate as it is dividing  Determinant: the ultimate fate of the daughter cells are established very early on  If a cell is removed, the structure is removed o Coelom formation  Splitting of solid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom Fate of blastopore  Forms during gastrulation and connects the archenteron to the interior of the gastrula  Becomes mouth and anus  Deuterstome o Cleavage  Radial and indeterminate  Indeterminate: each cell retains capacity in early cleavage stages to develop into complete embryo  Gives possibility of twins o Coelom formation  Mesoderm buds from the wall of archenteron to form coelom  Forms anus then mouth  Which isn't true about protostomes? o Coelom is formed from folds in archenteron  What do coelomate and pseudocoelomate animals have in common? o Presence of a body cavity  Phylogenetic relationship of animals o Active research field o Molecular phylogenetics and genomics have helped in rearranging prior phylogenetic relationships  Animal phylogeny key points o All share a common ancestor o Sponges are basal branching animals o Eumtazoa: clade of animals with true tissues o Metazoa contains branch of animals without true tissues (sponges) o Bilateria is clade most belong to o Chordates and some other phyla belong to the clade duesterostomia o Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons, a process called ecdysis o Some eopotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore  Fan-like, capture food, filter feeders  Some do, some don't  Others go through a distinct development stage called a trochopore larva  Some do some don't  Grade vs clade o Grade: group where members share key biological features o Grade isn't necessarily a clade  Animal phylogeny o Vertebrates are nested within chordates o Invertebrates make up 95% of phylogeny  Porifera o Sponges o Sedentary and live in marine or fresh water o Lack true tissues and organs o Suspension feeders: capture food particles suspended in water o Water is drawn through pores into a cavity (songocoel) and in an opening o Reproduction  Hermaphrodites  Both male and female  Big cloud of a lot of gametes  Broadcast sponers  Choanocytes o Help sponges feed o Sponges are very similar in structure and function of the choanoflagellates protozoan  Cnidarians o True tissues (Eumetazoa) o Oldest group in clade  Hydrozoan  Marine  Alternate between polyps and medusa forms  Polyps release sperm and egg, hoping they meet their opposite  Dominant stage: diploid  Scyplrozoa  Jellies are prevalent form  Culozoa  Box jellies and sea wasps  Highly toxic  Neurotoxin --> stop breathing  Anthozoans  Corals and sea anemones  Occurs only as polyps o Body plan  Sessile and motile  Relatively simple diploblastic radial body plan  Sac with central digestive compartment is the gastrovascular cavity  Mouth and anus  Sessile polyps but motile medusa o Feeding  Carnivores --> tentacles catch prey  Cnidocytes: offense and defense tentacles  Nematocytes: eject stinging thread  Trigger is activated  Jelly fish sting, can be toxic  Corals o Symbiosis with algae and secrete hard exoskeleton o Zooranthellae algae sensitive to temperature and pH, coral bleaching  Algae leave, but the coral can survive a while but will die eventually  Gentrophora o Comb jellies  Diploblastic  Radial symmetry o Use cilia for locomotion  Why do sponges represent a separate linage, distinct from all other animal phyla? o They lack true tissues  Cnidaria includes groups with a variety of body forms, but all share which common feature? o All have a gastrovascular cavity and tentacles  Cophotrochozoans o Feeding structure lophophore (some) o Others go through trochophore larva o Some don’t have lophophore or trophore larva o Platyhelininthes  Flat worms  Marine, freshwater, damp land  Triploblastic  Acoelomates  Flattened dorsovenetally and have 1 opening to gastrovascular with 1 opening  Gas exchange across surface  Protonephridia regulates osmotic balance  Rhabditophora  Planarians  Freshwater  Prey on smaller animals  Hermaphroditic  Sexual or asexual  Can be cut in half and regrow  Light sensitive eyespots  Nervous system more complex and centralized  Parasitic  Trematodes  Parasitize many hosts  Complex life cycles --> asexual and sexual stages  Part of life in snail hosts  Surface proteins that mimic their host's  2 hosts to complete 1 life cycle  Tapeworms  Vertebrates, parasitic, no digestive system  Absorbs nutrients from host's intestines  Scolex contains suckers and hooks  Fertilized eggs produce sexually and leave in host's feces  Rhotifera  Tiny, fresh water, ocean, damp sod  Smaller than single celled organisms and have specialized organ systems  Have alimentary canal with a separate mouth and anus that lies within pilled pseudocoelom  Multicellular  Reproduce through parthenogenesis  Females produce offspring without fertilizing eggs  Some species lack males entirely  Chain worms: parasites  Ectoprocta o Sessile and colonial  Lophophore  Coelomates o Hard exoskeleton encases colony  Builds up reefs  Brachiopada o Have shells  2 halves of shells are dorsal and ventral rather than lateral as in clams o Lophophore o Coelomates o Marine and attach to seafloor by stalk  Mollusca o Snails and slugs o Most marine and fresh water, few terrestrial o Soft bodied, but most are protected by a shell o Coelomates o Contain  Muscular foot  Visceral mass  Mantle o Many also have water filled mantle cavity and feed using a rasp-like radula  Tongue with teeth o Recently gone extinct (some)  Land snails o Some are invasive and damage ecosystems  Zebra muscles o Reproduction  Separate sexes with gonads located on the visceral mass  Many snails are hermaphrodites  Life cycle of many include a ciliated larval stage (trophophore) o Polyplacophore (chiton)  Oval-shaped and marine  Encased in amour of 8 dorsal plates  Foot used as a suction cup and use radula to scrape up and eat algae o Gastropoda  Marine, fresh water, terrestrial  Majority of mollusks  Snails and slugs  Most common characteristic: torsion  Causes anus and mantle to end up above its head  Single spiraled shell o Bivalia  Marine  Clams, oysters, mussels, and scallops  Shell divided into 2 halves drawn together by adductor muscles  Some have eyes and sensory tentacles alone the edge of the mantle o Cephalopoda  Carnivores with beak-like jaws surrounded by tentacles  Partly modified foot  Closed circulatory system, well developed sense organs and complex brain  Octopi  Squid  Nautiluses  Annelida o Bodies composed of a series of rings o Coelomates o Polyhcaetes  Paddle-like parapodia  Marine o Oligochaetes  Named for relatively sparse chaete, bristles made of chitin  Earthworms  Leeches are some that are either predators or blood sucking parasites  The group lophotrochozoa includes 18 phyla and have huge diversity of body forms. On what basis are all these animals thought to be in the same clade? o DNA sequencing  You find an animal with a shell and ciliated tentacles, what is it? o Brachiopod  Ecdysozoa o Covered in tough coat called cuticle o Cuticle is shed or molted through ecdysis o Nematoda  Round worms found in most aquatic habitats and soil  Can be parasitic  They have  Alimentary canal  Pseudocoelom  No circulatory system  No segmented body o Usually sexual reproduction but same can sexually reproduce  Internal fertilization o Caenorhabditis elegans is a model organism in research o Some are parasites to plants and animals o Thrichinella spiralis can be acquired by humans in undercooked pork o Arthropoda  2 out of every 3 known species of animals are arthropods  Extremely diverse  Body plan consists of  Segmented body  Hard exoskeleton  Jointed appendages  Body plan dates to Cambrian explosion  Early ones show little variation from segment to segment  Evolution characterized by a decrease in number of segments by an increase in appendage specialization  May have been caused by hox gene sequence or regulation  Walking, feeding, sensory reception, reproduction, and defense  Completely covered by cuticle, are exoskeleton made of layers of protein and chitin  When it rows it needs to molt its exoskeleton  Have eyes, olfactory receptors, and antennae that function in touch and smell  Open circulatory system in which hemolymph is circulated into the spaces surrounding the tissues and organs  Chelicerata  Claw-like feeding appendages (chelicerae)  Most marine forms are extinct but some survived, like horse-shoe crabs  Most modern ones are arachnids  Spiders, ticks  Body plan is  Abdomen  Cephalothorax with 6 pairs of appendages  Cheliceral: poison needle  Pedipalps: smell  4 pairs of walking legs  Many spiders produce silk ligail protein from specialized abdomenal glands  Myriapoda  Millipedes and centipedes  Jaw-like mandibles, and terrestrial  Millipedes eat decaying leaves and plant matter, have many legs and 2 pairs per segment  Centipedes are carnivorous with 1 pair of legs per segment  Hexapods  Insects and relatives is most specious  Live in every terrestrial habitat and fresh water  Internal anatomy includes several complex organs  Key innovations allowed insects to radiate  Evolution of flight  Adaptation of gymnosperms and angiosperms  Many undergo metamorphosis  Incomplete metamorphosis: the young nymphs resemble adults but are smaller and go through a series of molts until they reach full size  Not sexually mature  Complete metamorphosis: have larval stages before pupating, looks different from the adult  Most have separate sexes and fertilize internally  Individuals find each other through smells, bright colors, and sounds  Come insect are pollinators, harmful, or pests  Coleptera  Beetles  2 pairs of wings, one thick and strong  Complete metamorphosis  Diptera  Flies and mosquitoes  1 pair of wings and halteres (balances the bug and is reduced)  Complete metamorphosis  Hymenoptera  Bees, ants, and wasps  Social  2 pairs of wings  Complete metamorphosis  Lepidoptera  Moths and butterflies  2 pairs of wings  Covered in scales  Colorful or camouflage  Complete metamorphosis  Hemiptera  Assassin bugs and kissing bugs  2 pairs of wings, one leathery  Incomplete metamorphosis  Orthoptera  Grasshoppers and crickets  2 pairs of wings, one leathery and large hind legs  Incomplete metamorphosis  Crustacea  Banded appendages that are extensively specialized  Marine  Separate sexes  Small ones exchange gases through cuticles  Larger ones have gills  Isopods  Terrestrial, freshwater, marine  Decapods  Lobsters, crabs, crayfish, shrimp  Copepods  Small but very important ecologically  Barnacles  Mostly sessile  Have cuticle that is hardened into a shell  Evolutionary origin of arthropods' body plan is associated to which of these changes? o Specialization of diverse body segments  All of the following contribute to the large adaptive diversity of insects except o Multiple origins of wings in different insect groups


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