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Chapter 33 & 34: Invertebrates and Vertebrates

by: Amelia Notetaker

Chapter 33 & 34: Invertebrates and Vertebrates BYS 120

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Huntsville > Biological Sciences > BYS 120 > Chapter 33 34 Invertebrates and Vertebrates
Amelia Notetaker
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Chapter 33 and 34 notes.
Organismal Biology
Dr. Luciano Matzkin
Class Notes
Biology, uah, invertebrate, invertebrates, Vertebrates, vertebrate, darwin, notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BYS 120 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Dr. Luciano Matzkin in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Organismal Biology in Biological Sciences at University of Alabama - Huntsville.


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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 33 and 34 Lecture Notes  Echinodermata o Slow-moving or sessile marine animals o Thin epidermis covers an endoskeleton of hard calcarious parts o Water vascular system  Network of hydrolic canals branching into tube feet that function in locomotion and feeding o Males and females are separate o Broadcast sponers o Most adults have radial-like symmetry with multiples of five  Larvae have bilateral symmetry o Asterodia  Sea stars have multiple arms radiating from central disk  Under surface of each arm there are tubs that help moves  Fed on bivalves by prying them open with tubed feet  Can regenerate lost arms o Ophiuroidea  Brittle stars have a distinct disk and long flexible arms for movement  Suspension feeders, predators, or scavengers o Echinoidea  Sea urchins and sand dollars  No arms but 5 rows of tub feet  Spines used for locomotion and protection  Feed on seaweed using jaw-like structure o Crinoidea  Sea lilies that live attached by stalk  Feather stars can swim using long flexible arms o Holothuroidea  Sea cucumbers lack spines  Reduced exoskeleton  5 rows of tube feet some are modified as feeding tentacles  Chordata o Oldest known fossil 530 MYA o All vertebrates and 2 groups of invertebrates are here o 4 key characteristics  Notochord  Dorsal, hallow nerve cord  Pharyngal silts or clefts  Muscular, post-anal tail o Some species don't have all at once  Notochord o Longitudinal, flexible rod between digestive tube and nerve cord o Provide skeletal support throughout most of length of chordate  Dorsal, hallow nerve cord o Embryo development from a plate of ectoderm that rolls into a tube dorsal to the notochord o Development into central nervous system: brain and spinal cord o Development of nerve cord:  Pharyngeal slits or clefts o Grooves of pharynx o Develop into slits open to the outside of the body o Functions  Suspension feeding  Gas exchange  Development into parts of ear, head and neck  Muscular post-anal tail o Posterior to anus o Reduced in embryonic stage in some o Tail has skeletal elements and muscles o Can be propelling force in marine life  Which is not one key characteristic traits of chordates o Four walking legs or 2 walking legs and 2 arms  Cephalochordata o Include lancelets  Filter feeders o Most basal of all chordates  Urochordata o Most closely related to other chordates than lancelets o Resemble chordates during larval stage o As adult, drains water through incurrent syphon, filtering food particles o When attacked, shoots water through excurrent syphone  Sea squirts  Craniates o Skull, brain, eyes and other sensory organs o Origin of a head enabled chordates to coordinate more complex movement and feeding behavior o Have a neural crest  Cells near dorsal margin of closing neural tube of embryo  Give rise to a variety of structures (bones and cartilage in skull) o In aquatic craniates, pharyngeal clefts evolved into gill slits o Higher metabolism and more muscles o Have a heart with at lest 2 chambers, red blood cells, and kidneys o Around 530 MYA we see origin of skulls  Myxini (hagfish) o Basal group of craniates o Skull (Cartilage) axil rod of cartilage derived from brain, eyes, ears, and tooth formations o Marine bottom dwelling and scavengers  Vertebrates o Derived characters  Vertebrae enclosing spine  Elaborate skulls  Fin rays in aquatic forms o Evolution  Conodonts were the 1st vertebrates with mineralized skeletal elements in mouth and pharynx  Teeth  Other armored, jawless vertebrates had defensive plates of bone on their skin  Mineralization appears in mouth parts of vertebrates  Vertebrates' endoskeleton became fully mineralized much later  Lampreys (Petromyzontida) o Oldest linage of vertebrates o Cartilaginous segments surrounding notochord and arching partly over nerve cord  Gnathostomes o Sharks and their relatives, ray finned fish, lobe finned fish, amphibians, reptiles (birds), and mammals o Jaws that might've evolved from skeletal supports of pharyngeal slits o Enlarged forebrain associated with enhanced vision and smell o In aquatic forms, the lateral lim is sensitive to vibration o Earliest (450 MYA) fossil records are an extinct linage of armored vertebrates called placoderms o 3 lineages  Chondrichthyes o Skeleton mostly cartilage o Largest most diverse group o Sharks  Steam-lined body and are swift swimmers  Suspension feeders, but most are carnivorous  Acute senses includes sight, smell, and can detect electrical fields from nearby animals  Eggs are fertilized internally but embryos can develop different ways  Uviparous  Eggs hatch outside  Ovoviviparous  Embryo development in uterus and is nourished in egg yolk  Viviparous  Within the uterus nourished with yolk sac placenta from mother's blood  Development genes in chordate evolution o Changes in developmental genes were fundamental in diversification in morphological evolution observed in chordates o The same hox genes organize vertebrate's brain are expressed in lancelet's simple nerve cord tip o Hox genes duplication around craniates's beginning  2 sets of evergy hox genes o Duplication of (DIX) distal-less homeobox at vertebrates and higher  Limb development o Genome duplication (including Hox) in gnathostomes and higher (400 MYA) o Genome duplication again in actinptergii (8 sets) 200 MYA  Common genes in chordate evolution o Genome sequence suggest  Genes associated with heart and thyroid are common to all chordates  Genes associated with transmission of nerve impulses are unique to vertebrates  Osteichthyans o Have lungs or modified lungs o Vast majority of vertebrates o Nearly all have bony endoskeleton o Bony fish and tetrapods  Fish o Most breathe by drawing water over gills protected by opericulum o Control buoyancy with air sac known as swim bladder  Modified lung o Lateral line system o Oviparous, some have internal fertilization and live birth  Actinopterygii o Ray-finned fish, all aquatic o During siturian period (444-416 MYA) o Locomotion and defense (fins)  Lobed fins (Sacropterygii) o Rod shaped bones o Originated around same time as actinopterygii  Tetrapods o Limbs with digits o Characteristics include  4 limbs and feet with digits  Neck which allow separate movement of head  Fusion of pelvic girdle to backbone  Absence of gills (except some aquatic species)  Ears for detecting airborne sound o Fossil from 375 MYA o Tiktaalik, "fishapod" shows both fish and tetrapod characteristics  Fins, gills, lungs, and scales  Ribs breathe air and support body  A neck  Fins with bone pattern of a tetrapod  Could prop itself up on fins  Appeared around 365 MYA  Amphibia o Urodela  Salamanders o Anura  Frogs and toads o Apoda  Caecilians (legless salamanders) o Undergo metamorphosis from an aquatic larva into a terrestrial adult o Moat have moist skin that complements the lungs in gas exchange o External fertilization in most  Eggs require moist environment o Some (male or female) care for eggs on back, mouth or stomach  Amniotes o Includes reptiles, birds, and mammals o Clade is amniotic eggs  Contains 4 extraembyronic membranes  Amnion, chorion, yolk sac, and allantoes Most eggs of reptiles and some mammals have shells o Eggs adapted, has a relatively premeable skin and ability to use rib cage to ventilate lungs o Living amphibians and amniotes split 350 MYA o Early amniotes lived in dry conditions compared to mammals  Reptiles o Scales create waterproof barrier o Most lay shelled eggs on land o Ectothermic: absorb external heat as main source of body heat  Only in most, not all o Birds  Endothermic: capable of keeping body heat through metabolism  Oldest fossil in carboniferous period (359-299 MYA)  Parareptiles were 1st group  Large herbivores  Adapted for flight  Wings with keratin feathers  Lack of urinary bladder  Females have 1 ovary  Small gonads  Loss of teeth  Flight enhances hunting and scavenging and escape from predators and migration  Requires a lot of energy as well as acute vision an fine muscle control  Evolved from male theropods  Carnivorous dinosaurs  Feathers have evolved or insulation, camouflage, and courtship display  Helped with left when jumping, gaining traction when running up hills, and gliding from tree to tree  Oldest fossil 150 MYA  archaeopteryx o Diapsids  Lepidosaurs  Snakes  Legless, evolved from lizards  Carnivorous and some venomous  lizards  Archosaurs  Crocodiles and dinosaurs  Not a characteristic of all chordates? o 4 walking legs or 2 walking legs and 2 arms  Mammalia o Have  Mammary glands --> produce milk  hair  High metabolic rate --> due to endothermy  Larger brain than any other vertebrate of equivalent size  Differentiated teeth o Evolved from synapsids  287 MYA  Had fenestra: hole behind eye socket to support muscles  2 bones that formally made up jaw joint were incorporated into mammalian middle ear  Incus (quadrate) and Malleus (articular) o By early Cretaceous (about 140 MYA) 3 living lineages  Monotremes  Small group of egg laying mammals including platypus  5 species  Marsupials  Opossums, Kangaroos, and Koalas  Embryo develop within placenta in uterus  Early development leaves and goes into pouch and nurse and finish development there  Convergent evolution has resulted in a diversity of marsupials that resemble eutherians  Eutherian  More complex placentas than marsupials  Complete development in uterus and found to mone with placenta o Largest amount of diversification was after dinosaurs went extinct  Primates o In addition to humans the mammalian order includes lemurs, monkeys, tansies, etc o Most have hands and feet adapted to grasping and flat nails o Large brain and short jaws o Forward looking eyes close together on face, providing depth perception o Complex social behavior and parental care o Fully opposable thumb (monkeys and apes) o 3 main groups  Humans in anthropoids  Anthropoid evolution o 1st monkeys evolved in old world (africa and asia) o New world (south america) appeared 35 MYA o New world and old world monkeys under went separate adaptations and radiations  Ape evolution o Gibbons, orangutans, etc o Diverged from old world monkeys 20-25 MYA  Human characteristics o Humans and chimps genomes are 99% identical o Upright posture and bipedal locomotion o Larger brains capable of language, symbolic thought, and artistic expression, the manufacture and use of complex tools o Reduced jaw bones and jaw muscles o Shorter digestive tract o Changes in regulatory genes can have large effects  Hominin evolution o Closely related to humans than chimps o Fossils of about 20 species that are now extinct o Originated in africa 6-7 MYA o Early ones show evidence of small brains and increasing bipedalism o Australopiths are a paraphyletic assemblage of hominins 4-2 MYA  Fully erect  Australopiths o Robust: had sturdy skulls and poweful jaws o Gracile: more slender and light jaws  Bipedalism o Began walking long distances on 2 legs 1.9 MYA  Tools o Oldest evidence of tools, cut marks on animal bones 2.5 MYA  Homo halibis o Earliest homo fossil  2.4-1.6 MYA o Stone tools have been found with these --> "handy man"  Homo nalede o New fossil found in south africa o About 5 feet tall o Could be one of the earliest homos, but they're dating the fossil now  Homo ergaster o First fully bipedal, large-brained o Existed between 1.9-1.5 MYA o Significant decrease in sexual dimorphism (size difference between sexes) compared to ancestors  Homo erectus o Originated in africa 1.8 MYA o 1st hominin to leave africa  Homo neanderthalensis o Neanderthals lived in europe and near east for 35,000 to 28,000 years ago o Think boned with larger brain, buried their dead and made hunting tools  Homo sapiens o Appeared in africa by 195,000 years ago o All living humans are descended from these ancestors from africa o Oldest fossils outside africa was about 15,000 years ago and was in the middle east  Arrive to the new world before 15,000 years ago  Homo neanderthalensis and Homo sapiens o What happened to Neanderthals? o In 2010 neanderthal genome was sequenced o Hybridization between the 2 species occurred in Euroasia  European descent have about 4% neanderthal genes  Homo floresiensis o In 2004, 18,000 year old fossils were found in indonesia  Small  Homo sapiens population structure o Although there's variation across populations it is only a very small fraction of overall species - level variation  Deviance of DNA differs between species not populations o The term "race" has no biological support in homo sapiens  Classification of us o Sapiens --> homo --> homonidae --> primates --> mammalia --> chordata --> animalia (metozoa) --> eukarya o Not the end product of evolution


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