Chapter 2: The Components of Matter
Chapter 2: The Components of Matter CH 121
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amelia Notetaker on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CH 121 at University of Alabama - Huntsville taught by Pamela D Twigg (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see GENERAL CHEMISTRY I - 90514 - CH 121 - 02 in Chemistry at University of Alabama - Huntsville.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Chapter 2 Lecture Notes 0 Atomic theory of matter 0 Theory that atoms are fundamental building blocks of matter reemerged in the early 19th century by John Dalton Dalton39s Postulates 0 Each element is composed of extremely small particles called atoms 0 All atoms of a given element are identical to another in mass and other properties but atoms of 1 element are different from the atoms of all other elements 0 Atoms of an element aren39t changed into atoms of a different element by chemical reactions neither created nor destroyed 0 Compounds are formed when atoms of more than one element combine a given compound always has the same relative number and kind of atoms 0 The electron o Streams of negatively charged particles were found to emanate from cathodes o JJ Thomson credited 1897 0 Measured chargemess ratio of the electron to be 176x10quot8 couombsg Millikan oil drop experiment 0 1909 o Determined electron charge Pum pudding model 0 JJ Thomson 0 Sphere of matter with negative electrons embedded in it Discovery of nucleus 0 Ernest Rutherford shot alpha particles at a thin sheet of gold foil and observed pattern of scatter particles 0 Atoms are mostly empty space with a dense nucleus Periodic table 0 Row periods 0 Columns groups 0 Elements in the same group have similar properties Ions 0 When atoms gain or lose electrons Cations positive left side of table Anions negative right side of table Elements that are molecules 0 H2 N2 02 F2 CI2 Br2 F2 0 P4 0 58 Se8 Types of bonds 0 Ionic taking electron o Covalent sharing electron Ionic compounds 0 Binary compounds are formed between metal and nonmetals Naming ionic compounds 0 Name of formula lists cation then anion 0 Name of cation stays the same but the ending of the anion changes to llidell o If it39s polyatomic the cation stays the same but put a roman numeral in parenthesis after Oxyanion naming 0 Something and 02 0 When 2 Oxyanions involving the same element 0 1 with fewer 02 begins in quothypoquot and ends in quotitequot 1 with more 02 beings in quotperquot and ends in quotatequot Acid naming o If anion in acid ends in quotidequot change to quothydroquot and quotic acidquot 0 If anion ends in quotitequot change to quotous acidquot 0 If anion in acid ends in quotatequot change to quotic acidquot Naming binary covalent compounds o 2 nonmetals 0 Element in the lower group goes rst and is unchanged in name 0 Pre x is used to denote number of atoms of each element in compound 0 Not in rst element in name 0 Element that is 2nd in name uses quotidequot and has numerical pre xes to indicate number of atoms 0 If pre x ends with an quotaquot or an quotoquot and the name of the element begins with a vowel two successive vowels are in the spelling but are rolled into one while speaking Straight chain alikanes o Hydrocarbons Carbon and Hydrogen atoms 0 Alikanes simplest hydrocarbons Suf x quotanequot