Chapter 8: Thinking
Chapter 8: Thinking PSY 201
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Kasashima on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 201 at University of Oregon taught by Dassonville P in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Mind and Brain >3 in Psychlogy at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
CHAPTER 8 THINKING Cognition 0 The mental ability that includes thinking and the understandings that result from thinking Mental Representations 0 Analogical representations have some of the physical characteristics of objects 0 ex images typically faster to be processed needs no decoding 0 Symbolic representations are abstract with no resemblance to objects 0 ex words typically slower to be processed requires decoding Two inches i Symbolic representation Symbolicanalogical representation Analogical representation Analogical cat representation quoti 7 i gs iamp3 irf Symbolic representation Heuristics 0 Generally accurate shortcuts rules of thumb or informal guidelines used to reduce the amount of thought necessary to make a decision 0 Require less cognitive resources than an optimal strategy carefully weighing all evidence allowing us to focus attention on other things 0 Faster than an optimal strategy allowing us to respond more quickly 0 Accurate enough for most purposes BUT occasionally prone to errors and biases Schemas 0 Cognitive structures that help us perceive organize process and use information 0 Contains information on the objects events and rules of behavior hat are relevant within different situations 0 Ascript is a schema that guides a sequence of behaviors 0 Provide context that allows us to process information more easily and resond more quickly gt ex In the context of a kitchen observers are faster to recognize a mixer than a rooster On the other hand in the context of a barnyard observers are faster to recognize the rooster than a mixer 0 The Downside of Schemas O naccuracies in one39s schemas or the application of schemas too broadly can lead to gt negative stereotypes based on gender race etc gt faulty assumptions inaccurate perceptions and false memories Approaches to the Study of Decision Making 0 Normative decision theories assume that people make rational decisions that maximize gain 0 Prescribe the optimal decision strategy 0 Descriptive decision theory tries to account for actual behavior 0 Suggests that people are not always rational in their decisions 0 Expected Utility Theory 0 Example of a normative model 0 Assumes that people carefully consider all possible alternatives and choose the most desirable one ie the one with the greatest expected utility 0 Expected utilityvalue the outcome x probability of obtaining it gt Which would you prefer 0 A receiving a gift of 1 0 0 expected utility value x probability 10 x 10 10 0 B receiving a gift of a lottery ticking with a 10 chance of winning 100 0 expected utility 100 x 01 10 0 Expected utility theory suggests that both have equal expected utility so it shouldn39t matter which one they choose but most choose A gt Which would you prefer 0 A a 50 chance of winning 50 and a 50 chance of getting nothing 0 expected utility 50 x 05 0 x 05 25 0 25 0 B a 50 chance of winning 200 and a 50 chance of losing 100 0 expected utility 200 x 05 100 x 05 100 50 0 Expected utility theory suggests that option B has the greatest expected utility so people should prefer B but most choose A gt Using problems like these Khaneman and Tversky challenged the idea that people were rational in their decisions 0 Irrational decisions are typical 0 Decisions are based on heuristics such as gt Framing tendency to emphasize either the potential losses or gains associated with the alternatives in decision making gt In general people are loss averse ie potential losses carry a heavier wight than potential gains gt Anchoring tendency to overly rely on the first piece of information encountered or the first piece of information that comes to mind gt Representative Heuristic tendency to place a person or object within some category if the person or object is similar to one39s prototype for that category 0 tend to ignore the base rate frequency of an event occurring gt Availability Heuristic tendency to make a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind 0 can be based on perceived frequency rather than actual frequency 0 which can be affected by media exposure recency drama r Paradox of Choice too much choice leads to frustration indecision and dissatisfaction with the eventual selection
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