Chapter 25 notes
Chapter 25 notes 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Respiratory System 1 if looking at respiratory system anatomically the larynx is dividing the upper and lower respiratory tracts a larynx is placed in the lower respiratory tract But if you look at it functionally there is a conducting zone and respiratory zone what are the functions of respiratory system a puLmonarg ventLLatLon thaLatLon and exhaLatLon b gas constLonLng warm FLLter and hudeLFg aLr C sound productLon Forces aLr through Largnx to aLLow gou to speak d oLFactLon smeLL through oLFactorg ethheLLum presence Ln nasaL cathg e deFense mucus secretLons Lgsosomes and haLr heLps to FLLter 4 What is in the conducting zone a rigid conduit from nasal cavity to the terminal ends of bronchioles It s important that it s rigid so that it doesn t collapse and prevent air from reaching alveoli What is the function of the conducting zone warm humidify air What is in the respiratory zone bronchioles respiratory to alveoli what is the function of the respiratory zone site of gas exchange What is the flow that air goes through as it goes through upper respiratory tract a nostrLL externaL nares vestLbuLe concha and meatus b concha hills elevations C meatus valleys depressions 9 What is the importance of having superior middle and inferior meatus and concha They are useful to condition air as soon as it enters the nasal cavity by creating turbulence so that it can be warmedhumidified 10 What are swell bodies Found in nasal cavity They are made up from erectile tissue They function to close off one side of your nose so that airflow can be regulated between one area to the next 1 1 Why is this important to alternate the side of your nose that air flows through By changing air flow patterns it allows recovery of one side so that the membranes don t dry outbecome desiccated allows goblet cells to stay moist so that they are still functional 12 what are the paranasal sinuses Paranasal sinuses are hollowed out areas of skull bones that are lined with mucoperiosteum hybrid structure between mucus membrane and ciliated epithelial cells The vasculation of the ciliated epithelial cells allows these areas to stay warm This hollow chambers also help with sound resonance 13 What is the pharynx pharynx is a funnellike structure that is lined with mucosa and skeletal muscle that connects larynx and esophagus It s divided into 3 parts nasopharynx oropharynx and laryngopharynx The pharynx is a 9 PONFDP common pathway for respiratory and digestive systems 14 what makes up the lower respiratory tract conducting and respiratory zones 15 What is the larynx made up of 9 cartilages pieces that are held together by muscle and ligaments 16 What is the epiglottis The larger spoonlike cartilage covering 17 What is the significance of the larynx a It plays role in producing sound for speech b passageway for air C prevents food from getting into trachea because epiglottis d assists with increasing pressure in abdominal cavity when epiglottis is closed off you cause contraction of abdominal muscles and decrease volume which increases pressure e involved with sneezing and coughing reflex because irritates cause you to sneeze the contraction and then sudden release opening of epiglottis and vocal cords to cause a cough sets up for an explosive flow of air by increasing pressure in this area 18 Why are the tracheal rings not complete they don t go all the way around but why not go all the way around the esophagus lies just behind it if you re really hungry and take a large bite the large bolus of food pushes into the trachea because the esophagus is flexible to allow for large amounts of food to not block pathwaybe able to be pushed down 19 What muscle aids in coughing trachealis muscle 20 What is significance of the tracheal lining It produces a mucus rich fluid to lay on surface of trachea Keep in mind that the cilia moves the mucus up the esophagus so you can cough to bring up stuff and then move it down the esophagus Also the mucus is there to do the same function as in nasal cavity it s moist so it humidifies air it s sticky so it helps to filter air and catch particles that don t belong idea helps to cleanse filter air and humidified the lining is vascularized so that helps to warm the air 21 What is the bronchial tree It s located below the trachea and consists of 912 bronchial branch divisions lt serve to creates situation of anatomical architecture that functions to spread air quickly throughout all areas of the lungs fast movement of air to large area The conducting tubes get smaller as you go through the divisions It s made up of 3 structural changes a the support changes Cartilage rings in trachea and bronchi And replaced by cartilage plates as you go down toward bronchioles b the ethheLLum changes mucosaL ethheLLum pseudostnatLFLed coLumnan cuboLdaL squamous C the concentration of smooth muscle changes smooth muscle amount increases as the passageways get smaller 22 what is the root of lung It s the network of dense connective tissue that holds nerves vessels and lymphatics to the mediastinum the indentation is called the hilum 23 What is the carina bikini bottom that arises where the bifurcation occurs it s the cartilage ridge in sagittal middle section 24 Which bronchus is larger and why the right primary bronchus is larger than the left The right bronchus has 3 lobes while the left has 2 because heart is on the left side 25 What are the bronchioles and what are the walls made from The bronchioles are the smallest tubes that are made up of smooth muscle Because of the presence of smooth muscle this is where bronchoconstrictiondilation occurs controls air flow 26 What accounts for the majority of lung volume and surface area for gas exchange alveoli 27 What is the respiratory membrane respiration membrane is site of respiratory exchange gas exchange the membrane allows for diffusion oxygen moves from alveoli to blood vessel 28 What two cell types are found in the walls of the alveoli a Type I cells I squamous epithelium cells b Type II cellsseptal cells cuboidal epithelium produce surfactant 29 Each alveolus has a capillary bed associated with it They are surrounded by a cobweb of pulmonary capillaries where gas exchange occurs 30 What are the features of alveoli Alveoli are surrounded by elastic fibers have alveolar pores the hole between adjacent alveoli and alveolar macrophages immune cells 31 why have alveolar pores why have a hole as air flows through bronchial to alveolar sacalveoli the alveoli is partially filled with mucus so it provides an alternative outletability to move air 32 What are the structural differences between left and right lung a right lung has cardiac notch b left has superior and inferior lobe C right has superior middle and inferior lobe 33 What are fissures and what are their function Horizontal and oblique fissures They function to separate lobes from each other 34 What are bronchopulmonary segments The bronchopulmonary segments are regions of lung that are supplied by tertiary bronchus and a branch of pulmonary arteryvein they are surrounded by connective tissue and encapsulated entity They work as autonomous units 35 What is interesting about lung from other organs if you have a disease that affects one segment you can surgically remove it and it won t affect the rest of the lung so each entity could be removed and the rest of the organ would not be affected 36 What is significant about the partitioning of lungs It serves to protect the lungs from spreading disease from one segment to another 37 What are the two circulations of the lung a pulmonary systemic venous blood to be oxygenated where gas exchange occurs b bronchial systemic arterial blood to lung tissue to support the lung tissue itself 38 What is the pleurae of the lung It s serous membranes made up of visceral and parietal layers with a lubricating pleural fluid between these two layers a parietal pleura inner layer of lungs b visceral pleura outer surface of lungs and extends into fissure between lobules 39 What s significant about the serous membrane The layers and fluid provides lubrication reduces friction and generates surface tension keeps the membrane adhesively together to keep lung clung to the inner thorax wall there s not ligaments or muscle to stay in place so they stay in place by surface tension and fluid to keep it together without friction which is important for ventilation 40 Why is the division of the pleural cavities important the pleura provides further dividing of thoracic cavity to prevent organs from interfering with each other so that infections aren t as easily spread 41 What is the rate of flow is determined by the pressure of the two different ends 42 What are the two different ends the ends of tube are atmospheric pressure and alveolar pressure 43 What does a greater difference of pressure gradient mean A greater rate of flow 44 How do we move air when you inhale it s an active process when you exhale its inactive process passive 45 what happens when gou tnhate the dtagram contracts to become Ftat and tncrease the area 0 the thoractc cavttg the pressure decreases so Lt putts atr tn 46 What are the additional muscles used when inhalation amp exhalation is forced a inhalation uses pectoralis minor serratus anterior and sternocleidomastoid muscles b exhalation uses abdominal muscles 47 how do you know when to breathe The trachea bronchial tree and lungs are innervated by autonomic NS a parasympathetic constricts air tubes b sympathetic opens air tubes 48 medulla sets rate and depth of breathing a What does the medulla have The respiratoryrhythmicity center sets the rate and depth of breathing i DRG inspiration center initiates inspiration inhalation ii VRG expiratory center it s involved with is FORCED exhalation because relaxed exhalation is passive 49 pons modifies by using two centers a Apneustic center support inhalation by having positive effect on DRG b pneumotaxic center stimulates inhibition slows things down breathe by inspiration and you turn it off to exhale it helps to connect the inhalation and exhalation to have smooth transition between the two breathing types 50 Together what do the parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves form the pulmonary plexus
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