chapter 26 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Digestive System 1 What is the main function of digestive system site where food taken in is digested absorbed and those nutrients are used And mechanism to eliminate waste as well 2 What are the 2 categories of organs digestive and accessory a digestive organs are continuous tube of GI tract b accessory organs are associated with GI tract they are outgrowths and assist in digestions i appendix is not an accessory organ just part of cecum that has lymphatic follicles in it ii example salivary glands 3 What are the 6 activities of digestive system a ingestion foodstuffs enter mouth b digestion break down food i mechanical physical breakdown l chewing mouth 2 churning stomach 3 segmentation small intestine ii chemical catabolic processes break down into smaller molecules monomers c propulsion moving food through digestive tract i peristalsis alternating waves of contraction as a refleXive response ii segmentation rhythmic local contractions of nonadj acent segments 1 helps to miX food with digestive juices d secretion release uid products into GI tract lumen to help digest and provide frictionless passage e absorption moving solutes from GI tract to bloodlymph circulation i how does this movement occur across epithelial transepithelial transport ii is it active or passive mostly passive so that energy isn t used f elimination removal of indigestible substanceswastes 4 What is the oral cavity The entrance of oral cavity that includes mouth lips teeth tongue hard and soft palate and oropharynX 5 What are the two regions of the oral cavity vestibule and oral cavity proper a vestibule between lips and and teeth b oral cavity proper space behind teeth 6 What is the function of the tongue Helps with sound production manipulate food and compress food 7 Although the tongue is mostly non keratinized skeletal muscle covered by stratified squamous epithelium how can it become keratinized If a person smokes the area where the cigarette is held becomes keratinized Another way is to suck on lemons 8 What are teeth collectively known as dentition 9 what is the function of teeth mastication 10 What are the 2 types of salivary glands intrinsic and extrinsic glands a extrinsic glands i parotid submandibular amp sublingual glands b intrinsic glands i buccal glands found throughout oral cavity especially on cheeks 11 What are the 2 secretory cell types that make up salivary glands serous cells and mucous cells a serous cells dark staining i produce a watery secretion containing enzymes proteins amp ions ii produces proteins serous demi moons b mucous cells clear staining i produce mucus a viscous uid 12 What is saliva Mostly water hypo osmotic and slightly acidic 13 What is the pharynX a conduit used by respiratory and digestive systems 14 what is the pharynX lined with a nasopharynX i pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium b oropharynX amp laryngopharynX i nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium 15 what are the 3 parts of pharynX nasopharynX oropharynX and laryngopharynX 16 what type of membrane is the GI tract lined with serous membrane peritoneum a the parietal layer lines body wall b the visceral layer covers external surfaces of digestive organs 17 How does the peritoneal cavity help with lubrication within GI tract important lubrication through production of uid in peritoneal cavity assists with preventing in ammatory problems 18 What are the types of mesentery a omenta greater amp lesser i lesser comes off of lower part of stomach b mesentery proper i what you see around the small intestine c mesocolon i tethers serve as a connection that attaches the large intestine to the posterior wall it s only segments of the large intestine d peritoneal ligament i this is actually mesentery this ligament provides little connections from organ to organ or organ to body wall keeps organs stabilized cuz if GI tract is out of place there might be a twist that can cause an obstruction 19 In respect to organs what does intraperitoneal and retroperitoneal mean a Intraperitoneal organs i in peritoneal cavity amp keep their mesentery b Retroperitoneal organs i lost mesentery lie outside the peritoneum which covers only their anterolateral portions 20what are the 4 tunics of the GI tract a mucosa innermost tunic that lines GI tract mucous membrane i functions in secretion absorption amp protection ii unique because you can fin 3 sublayers b submucosa working layer dense CT that contains blood amp lymphatic vessels nerves lymph to licles elastic fibers i housesvascular network for GI wall c gmgIcularis inner layer of Circular SmM amp outer layer of longitudinal m i function in peristalsis amp segmentation ii sphincters thickening of inner Circular SmM layer that comiartmentalizes the GI tract d serosa protective outermost a er serous membranevisceral peritoneum composed of mesot elium simple squamous epithelium amp areolar CT i called adventitia if tissue is retroperitoneal like esophagus ii serosa if tissue is intraperitoneal stomach small and large intestine 21 Is the GI tract vascularized and innervated Yes there are blood vessels nghatic vessels and tissues Iacteals that extract fat and nerves autonomic 22 How does the autonomic NS affect the GI tract a Parasympathetic promotes absorption b sympathetic shuts it down 23What are the two main intrinsic nerve plexuses a submucosal in submucosa layer b m enteric in muscularis layer 24What is t e function of esophagus pass food from pharynx to stomach 25What is the area called that the esophagus passes through in the diagram the esophageal hiatus 26 Is the esopha us usually tubular or flattened flattened normally exception is when bolus 0 food is coming down 27what are the two sphincters of esophagus a har n oeso ha eal superior ES p i y gthickerEed rn of circular SmM ii marks area w ere pharynx amp esophagus meet b esophageal gastric inferior ES I cardia or gastroesophageal ii thin band of circular SmM at orifice between esophagus and stomach 28lllhat Ls degLutLtLon the process 0 moang Lngested Food From oraL cathg stomach 29what are the 3 phases of deglutition a voluntary phase tongue is used to push bolus against hard palate b pharyngeal phage involuntary bolus moves past soft palate uvula and over the Iar ngeal opening because the epiglottis is closed c esophagea involuntary peristaltic contracts moves bolus down esophagus to stomach 30what is the function of the stomach it mechanically and chemically digests food bolus into chyme 31 what controls stomach emptying pyloric sphincter 32What tunics are different in t e stomach a muscularis additional obliquely arranged layer to help churnmix food to physicallymechanically break it down b mucosa has simple columnar epithelium that produces alkaline mucus from gastric pits to chemically break down food 33why isn t the stomach broken down by its own secretions it has a mucosal barrier that is created by a thick coating of alkaline mucus that has tight junctions between mucosal epithelial cells to prevent the gastric juices from reachin underlying tissues most fascinating thing deep in gastric glands we see t ere are external faces of plasma membranes are im ermeable to HCI mechanism in place that protects against acidity Damaged cel s are quickly replaced 34what are the three divisions of small intestine duodenum jejunum and ileum a duodenum retroperitoneal 1st segment Cshaped where bile and pancreatic juices are delivered i duodenojejunal flexure becomes continuous with jejunum b jejunum and ileum are both suspended by mesenteryintraperitoneal c jejunum middle portion chemical digestionand nutrient absorption d ilem last portion controls entry of material into large intestine 35 How is the small intestine adapted for nutrient absorption a thbere isanincrease in surface area so there are more lacteals present fat a sorption b increased movement due to presence of smooth muscle c anreese surFace area mLx chgme thh LntesthaL JuLce and sLow movement For abortLon 36What do the simple columnar cells in the intestinal wall function to do these brush borders increase surface area and have enzymes that helped to offer final digestion of food into absorbable monomers 37what39s the function of the large intestine absorb water and few nutrients remaining so that the material is converted to solid waste feces and stores it until time to eliminate 38why are goblet cells in the lar e intestine important they produce mucus to help move the solid waste without riction 39what are the contractions of the large intestine like mostly inactive but when contractions do occur they are slow and shortlived 40what are the two types of motility of large intestine a haustral contractions churning i mostfrequent movement very slow segmenting movements that mix contents of LI and aids in water absorption b mass movements i mass peristalsis long slowmoving but powerful contractile waves that move over large areas of colon 1 gastrocolic reflex because stimulated by distension of stomach amp duodenum 41 how does defecation occur there is a defecation relax that occurs when a mass movement occurs it moves feces into rectum and stretches 42what39s the purpose of accessory digestive organs their secretions help with chemical di estion 43what is the unction of the liver produces bile has 4 lobes and there are 2 sources of blood through the hepatic artery and hepatic portal vein a hepatic artery brings in oxygen b hepatic portal vein brings in nutrients 44what are the structural and functional units of liver lobules 45what are the functions of hepatocytes liver cells a produce bile b process blood borne nutrients c sort fatsoluble vitamins d detoxify blood 46what is the function of gallbladder store and concentrate bile which is expelled through cystic duct 47why is pancreas a mixed gland both endocrine and exocrine functions 48what type of gland is the pancreas primarily exocrine a because it produces digestive enzymes and buffers into duodenum 49what makes up the pancreatic juices that are sent through pancreatic duct into duodenum water enzymes and electrolytes 50what types of pancreatic cells produce di estive enzymes acinar cells 51 what type of tissue produces an alkaline uid that neutralized the acidic chyme from stomach simple cuboidal epithelium 52what is the biliary apparatus a network of ducts that transport bile from liver and gallbladder to duodenum