chapter 27 notes
chapter 27 notes 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Tuesday December 1, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 12/01/15
Urinarv svstem The urinary system is a excretory elimination system waste is generated by various body tissues such as cerebral spinal fluid lymph etc 3 What would happen without urinary system We would have a accumulation of waste which is a toxic elixir 4 what are the components of urinary system kidneys ureters urinary bladder amp urethra What do kidneys filter filter waste from blood what does the spleen filter removes foreign intruders from blood what makes up the urinary tract ureters bladder and urethra what are the functions of the urinary system a regulates blood volume and blood pressure because it adjusts the volume of water lost regulates ion contractions like Na K Cl stabilizes blood pH controls bicarbonate and H ions conserves valuable nutrients prevents excretion regulates erythrocyte production via erythropoietin f storageexcretion of urine 9 what is the renal hilum of kidney the renal hilum is a site of entranceexit where the renal arteriesveins and ureter extends from 10 what is the fibrous capsule renal capsule of kidney fibrous capsule that surrounds kidney to help maintain shape and protect from infectionstrauma it s not protected by rib cage 1 1 what is the adipose capsule of kidney fat is universal packaging material fat comes in two layers serves to protect keep in position and insulte a perinephric between fibrous capsule and renal fascia b paranephric fat btwn renal fascia and body wall anchors kidney to body wall and helps to insulate 12what does the renal fascia do for kidneys helps to anchor kidneys 13 What is the gross anatomy of the kidney It is made up of outer renal cortex and inner renal medulla a the renal medulla forms renal pyramids formed into triangular shaped compartments one triangle is a renal lobe b has renal sinus i has adipose deposits ii minor calyx and major calyx extend from renal pelvis 1 major calyx the larger branch 2 minor calyx the smaller branches that extend into medulla 14what controls how much urine is sent to bladder the contractionrelaxation of smooth muscle 15 How does the blood enter the kidney Blood enters through hilum shunted to cortex then enters renal corpuscle has glomerulus which is fed by afferent arteriole and drained by efferent arteriole these two arterioles sets up a high po pvsn NL was pressure system When blood leaves efferent arteriole it enters vasa recta loop of henle nephron loop or peritubular capillaries convoluted tubules then sent to renal vein and then to inferior vena cava 16what are the functional and structural units of kidney nephrons 17what are nephrons bloodprocessing units 18what are the two types of nephrons cortical and juxtamedullary a cortical 80 o has short nephron loop that barely extends into medulla b juxtamedullary long nephron loops that extend into medulla has vasa recta important for reclaiming water 19 Urine is formed using what 3 processes a glomerular filtration blood passes through the glomerulus and the pressure system sends it back into capsular space b tubular reabsorption occurs in renal tubule takes back ions and nutrients occurs in proximal of tubuleputs ions back into blood c tubular secretion the body s last chance to secreteliminateget rid of any extras occurs in distal of tubule moves ions from blood into tubular fluid 20what are renal corpuscles enlarged regions surrounding fenestrated capillaries where urine formation begins 21 how does filtration at glomerulus occur filtration happens at the interjection of podocytes and fenestrated capillary occurs at filtration membrane the waste is pushed from lumen of capillary out of the fenestrations slitsholes in capillaries and pushed toward podocyte 22 how is filtration influenced a higher pressure in capillaries created by the afferent arterial being larger b fenestrated capillaries the slits allow solutes to pass through blood to capsular space c filtration slits on podocytes allow passage of solutes 23What is the function of the juxtaglomerular cells granular cells in juxtaglomerular apparatus in nephron regulate rate of filtration formation and systemic blood pressure because these cells are mechanoreceptors and modified smooth muscle cells to hellp modified the blood pressure 24can filtrate be modified or urine produced when fluid enters the renal pelvis NO 25what is the function of ureters transport urine from kidneys to bladder a has 3 tunics mucosa muscularis and adventitia 26 how do ureters move urine down to bladder peristalsis contractions that are activated because the smooth muscle layer contracts as distension urine moving from kidney two ureters occurs 27what type of muscle is the urinary bladder expandable muscle that collapses when urine is voided 28what is located on the walls of bladder rugae 29what is significant about rugae in bladder allows bladder to stretchincrease in size to hold more urine until it can be voided 30does the internal pressure increases as the bladder enlarges NO 31 what type of epithelium is bladder made up of transitional epithelium 32what type of ligament does the bladder have medial umbilical ligament mcnutt scott s favorite 33what is the function of urethra void urine from bladder to out of the body 34what s the difference between urethra in women and men women have shorter urethras why women get more UTl s a urine is wonderful culture media for bacteria 35what are the 2 types of sphincter of urethra a internal urethral sphincter these relax as your bladder starts getting fuller b external urethral sphincter voluntary so it can stay contracted longer even if your bladder is filling up but only voluntary up to a certain point
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