Bio 200 Week 14 Notes
Bio 200 Week 14 Notes BIO 200LLB
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 200LLB at University at Buffalo taught by Lindqvist, C in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 42 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Biology in Biological Sciences at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 12/02/15
November 30 2015 Lecture 28 Consumer resource interactions 1 Predation is universal 2 There are many types of predation consumption 3 Consumer species have major effects on prey species 4 Many predator prey populations cycle 5 Coexistence between predators amp prey Coevolution among predators amp prey 1 Prey evolve to avoid predation 2 What if you re sessile 3 Predators evolve more efficient ways to hunt prey Predation Far more than a simple transfer of energy Consumer resource interactions Include classic predator prey interactions as well as parasites and herbivory Detrivoreseat things that are already dead do not in uence abundance or distribution of what they eat Consumers strongly affect their prey Prey Elimination Invasive species can take over an area killing all prey Klamath weed covered 37 counties Chrysolina beetle was introduced to prey on the weed and eliminate it Predators Can also limit prey ranges Megapode birds do not live anywhere where Asian predatory mammals live because those predatory mammals typically eat eggs amp it would be difficult to defend their eggs Megapodes are only successful where marsupials are dominant species Predator Prey Cycling When prey population declines the predator population follows it Data on Lynx amp Hair shows very specific cycles of 10year increments There are many Mechanisms of Coexistence 1 Refuges 2 Cycling 3 Few Predators 4 Generalist predators Many predators amp prey species are coevolving Prey Defense Strategies 1 Crypsis a Hiding most widely known way to avoid predators b Cryptic coloration amp object mimicry 2 Chemical Defense a Bombardier beetlesprays noxious liquid that has the temperature of boiling water at a potential predator 3 Toxicity a Nudibranches consume jellyfish and transfer the toxicity from the jellyfish to their own bodies to protect against predators b Often associated with warning colorationaposematic coloring 4 Armor a Difficult for predator to access prey 5 Behavioral defense a Alarm calling b Distraction displays c Running d Herds 6 Predator satiation a Some species time reproduction so all young are born within a short period of time b So many prey individuals that a high percentage of them will survive What If you re Sessile Toxicity amp armor used Many plants have toxic chemicals in them or produce spines bark that protect the main portion of plant How do Predators find Prey 1 Search images a Can smell prey or see in the infrared 2 Avoiduse toxins a Ambush hunting stalking amp pursuit 3 Get through armor December 2 2015 Lecture 29 Symbioses 1 Parasitism a Ectoparasites vs endoparasites b Multiple hosts 2 Mutualism a Types of mutualism b Importance of stress 3 Commensalism amp ammensalism 4 Species interactions may change over time amp can be hard to name 5 Communities are interactions of species interactions 6 Keystone species Lichens Scientists use lichens to determine air pollution Union of fungus amp algae allow lichens to live in relatively dry places Fungi that have discovered agriculture 4 Main Types of Symbiosis 1 Parasitism 99969 h Benefits one symbionts but harms the other Long term interaction Prey does not die quicklyparasite needs host to survive Both endo and ectoparasites Plants can be parasitichave lost chlorophyll amp must absorb it from other plants Complex life cycles often relies on multiple hosts to get through the outside world i Parasites often die out because there are no susceptible hosts left ii Certain parasites can alter the behavior of hosts to allow them to spread faster 1 Dicrocoelium dendriticumparasite that infects the brains of ants causes them the climb to the top of a piece of grass so that a deer will ingest them 2 Mutualism a b c d Benefits both symbionts Cleaner amp quotCustomerquot fish one fish eats off of the other fish while the quotcustomerquot fish gets cleaned The number of microbial cells outweighs human cells 10 to 1 Each individual has it s own microbiome i Eyelash mites eat dead skin cells Three Types of mutualism 1 Trophic a Use each other for food or to gain nutrients gut ora 2 Defensive a Symbiont A eats part of symbiont B in exchange for defense cleaner customer fish 3 Dispersive a Exists between an immobile and mobile organism 3 Commensalism a Benefits one has no affect on the other b Typically involve transport amp housing mites attach to damsel ies to move around faster do not harm y c Epiphytic orchidssit on trees but do not take nutrients or block sunlight 4 Ammensalism a Harms one has no affect on the other b Baby saguaro cactus gains shade from other desert plantsnot an issue when young but when grown this cactus uses resources intended for use by the other plant Community is only as stable as relationships between organisms Communities are interactions of species interactions Keystone Species Not necessarily at the top of the food chain but hold all other species interactions together When starfish was removed from a community the diversity collapsed Elephants Feed on trees which prevents the grassland from growing to woodland This biome change would harm all other organisms who live in that area