New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Chapter 6: Solutions

by: Justyna Jaworski

Chapter 6: Solutions Chem 110

Justyna Jaworski
M. Leifker

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

M. Leifker
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Chem

Popular in Chemistry

This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justyna Jaworski on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 110 at Northern Illinois University taught by M. Leifker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Chem in Chemistry at Northern Illinois University.


Reviews for Chapter 6: Solutions


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/02/15
Solutions 61 Properties of solutions 0 solution homogeneous mixture of two or more substances solutesovent o solute the component of a solution that is present in lesser quantity 0 solvent the solution component present in the larger quantity 0 aqueous solution solution where the solvent is water examples of solutions 0 solutions can be liquids as well as solids and gases 0 air oxygen and several trace gases are dissolved in the gaseous solvent nitrogen o alloys brass and other homogeneous metal mixtures in the solid state 0 focus on liquid solutions as many important chemical reactions take place in liquid solutions General properties of liquid solutions 0 clear transparent no visible particles 0 may be colored or colorless o Electrolytes FORMED FROM SOLUTES THAT ARE SOLUBLE IONIC COMPOUNDS 0 IONIC IS electrolyte o nonelectrolytes do not dissociate o covalent is nonelectrolyte 0 NaCl s gt Na aq Cl aq 0 sugar dissolves but does not dissociate 0 volumes of solute and solvent are not additive 0 1L ethanol 1 L h20 does not give 2 L of solution Solutions and Colloids o colloidal suspension contains solute particles which are not uniformly distributed 0 due to larger size of particles 1nm200nm 0 appears identical to solution from the naked eye 0 smallerthan 1 nm have solution 0 Iargerthan 1 nm have precipitate solid 0 Colloidal suspension is call TYNDALL EFFECT o tyndall affect the ability of a colloidal suspension to scatter light I see a haze when shining light through mixture 0 hitting solid particles that give shadows I solution light passes right through without scattering Degree of solubility solubility how much of a particular solute can dissolve in a certain solvent at a specified temperature capacity when all seats filledall interactions used up can seat any more students 0 factors that affect solubility o Polarity of solute and solvent I the more different they are the lower solubility I like dissolves like Temperature increase in temperature USUALLY increases solubility of liquidssolids gases more soluble at lower temperatures Other factors Saturation o saturated solution a solution that contains all solute that can be dissolved at a particular temperature CONSTANT TEMPERATURE o supersaturated contains more solute than can be dissolved at the current temperature 0 getting things here is easy just increase temperature but when the temperature drops suddenly the solid will come out of solution heat solvent and saturated with solute cool slowly sometimes excess precipitate falls out if it does not precipitate the solution will be supersaturated Solubility and equilibrium 0 if excess solute is added to a solvent some dissolves c at first rate of dissolution is large 0 later reverse reaction precipitation occurs more quickly 0 when equilibrium is reached the rates of dissolution and precipitation are equal there is some dissolved and some undissolved solute o a saturated solution is an example of a DYNAMIC EQUILIBRIUM Solubility of Gases Henry s Law the number of moles of a gas dissolved in a liquid at a given temperature is proportional to the partial pressure of the gas above the liquid gas solubility in a liquid is directly proportional to the pressure of the gas in the atmosphere in contact with the liquid 0 Gases are most soluble at low temperature 0 solubility decreases significantly at higher temperatures 0 carbonated beverages c02 solubility less when warm 0 respiration facilitates 02 and C02 exchange in lungs 62 concentration based on mass 0 concentration amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of a solution 0 concentration of a solution has an effect on 0 physical properties I melting points and boiling points 0 chemical properties I solution reactivity Solubility holds PRESSURE and TEMPERATURE CONSTANT 1000 ML 1 L Massvolume percent 0 amount of solute mass of solute in grams 0 amount of solution volume in mL concentration amount of soluteamount of solution 0 concentration is expressed as a percentage by multiplying ratio by 100 weight volume percent or mV o mv grams solute ML solution x 100 mV calculation of 200 x10quot2 mL containing 200 g sodium chloride solute in grams on top 200 g 200 X10quot2 ml X 100 10 15 g X 750X10A2 X 100 Massmass percent mm grams solute grams solutions x100 o massmass percent most useful for solutions of 2 solids whose masses are easily obtained lesser masssolutegreater mass solvent added together solution mm 4500 g pt 1400 4500 x 100 Parts per thousand ppt and Parts per million ppm as percentage is the number of parts of solute in 100 parts of solution ppt and ppm change the calculation only by orders of magnitude 0 ppt g solute g solution x10quot3 ppt 0 ppm g solute g solution x 10quot6 PPM o ppt and ppm most often used for very dilute solutions 1 g sample of stream water was found to contain 10 x 10quot6 g lead calculate the concentration of lead in the stream water in units of mm ppt and ppm mm 10 x10quot6 1 x100 PPT original x 10quot3 ppt ppm same x 10quot6 PPM is most simple amp reasonable no scientific notation 63 Concentration of Bases in Moles 0 chemical equations represent the relative number of moles of reactants producing products 0 many chemical reactions occur in solution where it is most useful to represent concentrations on a molar basis Molarity o the most common mole based concentration unit is molarity o molarity o symbolized M 0 defined as the number of moles of solute per liter of solution o M moles solute L solution Calculating Molarity from Moles 0 Calculate the molarity of 20 L of solution containing 50 mol NaOH 0 use equation o M moles solute L solution o substitute M 52 Calculating Molarity from mass 5 g glucose are dissolved in 100 x 10quot2 mL of solution calculate molarity M of the glucose solution MW glucose 180 gmol 5 g 1 moi180 g 278 x 10 quot 2 mol 100 X 10 quot2 ml 1L1000 ml 01 L M 278 X 10quot2 mol 0100 L 278 X 10quot1 M Dilution Dilution is required to prepare a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one o m1 molarity of solution before dilution 0 m2 molarity of solution after dilution 0 v1 volume of solution before dilution 0 v2 volume of solution after dilution M moles solute L solution M1V1M2V2 Dilution o in a dilution will the number of moles of solute change 0 no only fewer per unit volume Calculating Molarity after dilution calculate molarity of solution made by diluting 0050 L of 010 M HCL solution to volume of 10 L m1 010 M m2 X v1 0050L v2 10 L 64 Concentration dependent solution properties 0 colligative properties properties of solutions that depend on the concentration of solute particles rather than the identity of the solute 0 four colligative properties of solutions vapor pressure lowering boiling point elevation freezing point depression osmotic pressure OOOO Vapor pressure of a liquid 0 consider raoults law in molecular terms 0 vapor pressure of a solution results from escape of solvent molecules from liquid to gas phase 0 partial pressure of a gas phase solvent molecules increases until equilibrium vapor pressure is reached 0 presence of a solute molecules hinders escape of solvent molecules lowering equilibrium vapor pressure 0 raouts law when a nonvolatile solute is added to a solvent vapor pressure of the solvent decreases in proportion to the concentration of the solute o solute molecules serve as a barrier to the escape of solvent molecules resulting in a decreases the vapor pressure 0 when we lower vapor pressure act as barrier Freezing point depression and boiling point elevation o freezing point depression may be explained considering the equilibrium between solid and liquid states 0 solute molecules interfere with the rate at which liquid water molecules associate to form the solid state 0 boiling point elevation can be explained considering the definition as the temperature at which vapor pressure of the liquid equals the atmospheric pressure 0 if solute is present then the increase in boiling temperature is necessary to raise the vapor pressure to atmospheric temperature Freezing point depression 0 fpt or delta tf proportional to the number of solute particles 0 solute PARTICLES notjust solute 0 how does an electrolyte behave o dissociate into ions 0 an equal concentration of NaCl will affect the freezing point twice as much as glucose a nonelectrolyte 0 each solvent has a unique freezing point depression constant or proportionality factor kt delta t of freezing kfreezing boiling point elevation BPE delta tb proportional to the number of solute particles an electrolyte will affect boiling point elevation constant kb deltaTkbm kb052 celcius m water Molality industrial purposes 0 solute concentration is expressed in mole based units 0 number of particles in critical not mass solute o molality m moles of solute per kg of solvent 0 denominator is in kg solvent not kg solution Molality moles solute kg solvent Practice calc freezing pt of 838 m aqueous solution of ethylene glycol deltankf m deltaTF 186 x 838 156 degree c but this is just the change fp O 156 156 Osmotic Pressure some types of membranes appear impervious to matter but actually have a network of small holes called pores these pores may be large enough to permit small solvent molecules to move from one side of the membrane to the other solute molecules cannot cross the membrane as they are too large semipermeable membrane allows solvent but not solute to diffuse from one side to another osmosis the movement of solvent from a dilute solution to a more concentrated solution through a semipermeable membrane requires pressure to stop this flow Osmotic pressure pi not 314 the amount of pressure required to stop the flow across a semipermeable membrane mMRT osmolarity molarity of particles in solution osmol calc osmolarity of 50 x 10quot3 M Na3PO4 na3po4 is ionic compound forming electrolytes breaks into na po4 balance to get 3 na po4 50 x 10quot3 M x 4 particles 20 x10quot2 osmol osmolarity 50 x 10quot2 M x 2 particles 10 x 10quot1 osmol pi MRT pi 10 x10quot1 00821 298k pi 24 atm Tonicity and the cell hypertonic burst cell greater osmolarity than cell gt lower lsotonic dounut same osmolarity than cell hyopotonic swollen lower osmolarity than cell low to high 65 aqueous solutions water is often referred to as the universal solvent excellent solvent for polar molecules most abundant liquid on earth sixty percent of the human body is water 0 transports ions nutrients and waste into and out of cells 0 solvent for biochemical reactions in cells and digestive tract 0 reactant or product in some biochemical processes electrolytes in solution 0 two common ways of expressing concentration of ions in solution 0 moles per liter molarity I molarity emphasizes the number of individual ions covered earlier in chapter I equivalents per liter eqL o emphasis on charge equivalents 1MNa3PO4 Doesn t matter if positive or negative What is the concentration of p04 3 ions 1 M What is the concentration of Na ions 3 M Equivalent is defined by the charge one equivalent of an ion molar mass of ion 9 number of charges on ion Equivalents Liter quL eqlmol ion mol ionl L Calculating ion concentration o calculate eqL of phosphate ion P04 3 in a solution with 50 x 10quot3 M phosphate 0 eqL 350 x 10quot3 M o 15 x10quot2 eqL Answer in meqL milli so 1000 meq 1 eq Biological Effects of Electrolytes in solution 0 the two most important cations in the body fluids are Na and K Blood cells na 135meqL 3550 meqL k 10 meqL 125 meqL Biological effects of electrolytes in solution 0 active transport the transporting of Na and K ions across the cell membrane 0 cellular energy must be expended to make concentration of ions different on each side of the cell membrane 0 this is accomplished via large protein molecules embedded in cell membranes BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF ELECTROLYTES IN SOLUTION o danger to the body occurs when na and k both in blood and in cells becomes too low or high Na too low decreased urine output dry mouth flushed skin fever too high confusion stupor or coma K too high death by heart failure too little death by heart failure 0 two most important anions in the body fluids are Cl and HC03 0 Cl acid base balance maintenance of osmotic pressure oxygen transport by hemoglobin o HC03 form in which most waste C02 is removed from the body Proteins in the blood blood clotting factors antibodies albumins most drugs are organic and not soluble in water so they latch it to albumin which is huge and will dissolve in watercarriers of nonpolar substances which cannot dissolve in water proteins are transported as a colloidal suspension the blood also transports nutrients and waste products


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Jennifer McGill UCSF Med School

"Selling my MCAT study guides and notes has been a great source of side revenue while I'm in school. Some months I'm making over $500! Plus, it makes me happy knowing that I'm helping future med students with their MCAT."

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.