Social Psychology Chapter 13 Lecture Notes
Social Psychology Chapter 13 Lecture Notes PSYCH-1000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 12/02/15
Lecture Notes: Chapter 13: Social Psychology November 30 - December 4, 2015 Introductory Psychology with Dr. Rollins I. Social Psychology▯how people think about, influence, and relate to one another. II. Social Thinking a. Explains behavior b. Attributions▯the process of making inferences about the reasons or causes of some event. i. Dispositional/internal Attributions▯inferring the behavior is cause by that person’s personality. ii. Situational/external Attributions▯inferring the behavior is caused by the circumstances that the person has experienced. iii. Fundamental Attribution Error 1. We tend to make more internal attributions. We overestimate the role of personality and underestimate the power of the situation. 2. Found cross-‐culturally, but more significantly in western cultures. iv. Actor-‐Observer Bias▯the tendency to make dispositional attributions for others’ behaviors and situational attributions for our own bad behaviors. c. Attitudes▯feelings that predispose our actions. i. Attitudes affect our actions, and actions affect our attitudes. ii. We tend to seek consistency between what we say, think and do. iii. Cognitive Dissonance▯the tension that occurs when our attitudes and actions don’t match. 1. We will change our attitudes to justify our behaviors. 2. Festinfer and Carlsmith 1959 a. They made subjects complete a very long and boring task and then asked them to lie to the next subjects saying it was exciting and fun. The subjects were paid either $1 or $20 for lying. Those who were paid $1 rated the task as being more favorable in a survey after the event. b. The $1 provided a low justification for lying, so the subjects experienced cognitive dissonance and changed their attitudes. d. Role Absorption ▯we tend to adopt the roles to fit the situation we are in. i. Zimbardo Prison Study (Stanford Prison Experiment) 1971 1. Half of subjects were randomly chosen to be guards, and the other half were chosen to be prisoners in a mock prison experiment. 2. Prisoners were there for 24 hours, guards came in 8 hour shifts. 3. “Pretend” quickly became reality. 4. They had to cancel the study after 6 days because the guards became abusive. 5. Showed that situations exert powerful influences. 6. Social pressure. e. Conformity▯changing one’s beliefs or behaviors to match a group’s beliefs due to unspoken group pressure. i. Asch Conformity Experiments 1. Tested people▯asked which lines are the same length, everyone else gave the obviously wrong answer. 2. 30% of the subjects followed the group and gave the wrong answer. ii. Social norms▯learned cultural rules. iii. Conformity increases with unanimous majority. f. Compliance▯going along with a request made by someone who is not an authority figure. i. Indirect methods 1. Foot-‐in-‐the-‐Door technique a. Small request followed by a large request. 2. Door-‐in-‐the-‐Face technique a. Large request followed by a small request. g. Obedience▯going along with a demand made by an authority figure. i. Milgram’s obedience studies 1. Subject is put in the role of a teacher and instructed to deliver increasingly intense shocks to a “student” who gives wrong answers. 2. As reactions from the shock victims intensified, 65% of the subjects continued to shock the victim up to 450 volts if instructed to. 3. Ethics a. Subjects were given a debriefing afterwards, and follow-‐up studies were done. 4. Today the results would probably be similar. 5. Conclusion: “The most fundamental lesson of our study is that ordinary people, simply doing their jobs, and without any particular hostility on their part, can become agents in a terrible destructive process.” ii. Why do we obey? 1. Authority. 2. Responsibility. 3. The power of the situation. iii. Historical Example-‐Nazi Germany. III. Group Influence a. Deindividuation▯when people behave in uncharacteristic ways because they feel anonymous and less accountable. b. Groupthink▯when a group is unable to make wise decisions because they are unable to realistically consider options due to group dynamics. i. Focus on consensus. ii. Conditions that promote groupthink. 1. Isolation. 2. Illusions of superiority. 3. Suppression of dissenting views. 4. Leader favors a particular position. iii. Avoiding groupthink. 1. Designate a devil’s advocate. 2. Allow anonymous expression of opinion. 3. Discuss ideas with outsiders. c. Stereotypes▯beliefs about a group. i. False assumptions that all members of a group share the same characteristics. d. Prejudice▯unjustified evaluations or judgments of a person based on their group membership. i. Legitimizing ideology▯justifies inequalities. e. Discrimination▯actions that display prejudice. f. Overt attitudes▯attitudes we are aware of having. g. Implicit attitudes▯attitudes beneath our consciousness. i. Implicit Association Test (IAT) 1. Reveals how closely connected particular concepts are in our minds by how quickly we can associate words and/or pictures. a. Pictures of black or white people holding tools or guns popped up and people had to rapidly decide whether to shoot them or not. i. They often shot black people holding tools. h. Roots of Prejudice i. Our tendency to categorize people and objects into groups to simplify things. ii. Illusory correlations▯we often believe the behavior of one person is associated with the whole group. iii. Confirmation bias▯we notice and remember examples that confirm our beliefs. iv. Ingroup Favoritism▯we tend to evaluate our groups more favorable, even if the group was assigned randomly. v. We can learn prejudice. vi. Scapegoating▯blaming others when things go wrong. vii. Social inequalities. viii. Just World Phenomenon▯the belief that people get what they deserve. 1. The world is just. 2. Leads to blaming the victim. 3. Shock experiment▯people saw a woman receiving electric shocks, and they perceived her as being bad or deserving the shocks somehow. ix. Hindsight Bias▯outcomes seem obvious after the fact. 1. Leads to blaming the victim. 2. Date experiment▯people read a date scenario. In half of the scenarios, the woman was sexually assaulted at the end. In these scenarios, the subjects said the woman did things to provoke the sexual assault. x. The privileged fail to notice their privilege. i. Helping Behavior i. The Bystander Effect▯we are less likely to help someone in need when other people are around. 1. The murder of Kitty Genovese-‐1964 2. Diffusion of responsibility. ii. Factors that influence helping: 1. If the need for help is clear. 2. If people know each other. 3. If we are in a good mood. a. Feel-‐good, do-‐good. 4. If the person seems similar to us. 5. If the person is judged to be deserving. 6. Areas with less population density. 7. If we are not in a hurry. 8. If the benefits outweigh the costs. j. Interpersonal Attraction i. Keys to Attraction 1. Physical proximity a. Geographic nearness 2. Mere-‐exposure effect▯we tend to like what is familiar. 3. Similarity in attitudes, beliefs, interests, opinions, habits, SES, background, religion, race, etc. 4. Physical attractiveness is more important in the early stages of a relationship.
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