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Social Psychology Chapter 13 Lecture Notes

by: Brynn Beveridge

Social Psychology Chapter 13 Lecture Notes PSYCH-1000

Marketplace > Tulane University > Psychlogy > PSYCH-1000 > Social Psychology Chapter 13 Lecture Notes
Brynn Beveridge

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About this Document

Here are my notes from Dr. Rollin's lectures on Chapter 13: Social Psychology!
Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000)
Dr. Rollins
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brynn Beveridge on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH-1000 at Tulane University taught by Dr. Rollins in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology (PSYCH 1000) in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 12/02/15
Lecture Notes: Chapter 13: Social Psychology November 30 - December 4, 2015 Introductory Psychology with Dr. Rollins I. Social  Psychology▯how  people  think  about,  influence,  and  relate  to  one   another.   II. Social  Thinking   a. Explains  behavior   b. Attributions▯the  process  of  making  inferences  about  the  reasons  or   causes  of  some  event.   i. Dispositional/internal  Attributions▯inferring  the  behavior  is   cause  by  that  person’s  personality.   ii. Situational/external  Attributions▯inferring  the  behavior  is   caused  by  the  circumstances  that  the  person  has  experienced.   iii. Fundamental  Attribution  Error   1. We  tend  to  make  more  internal  attributions.  We   overestimate  the  role  of  personality  and  underestimate   the  power  of  the  situation.   2. Found  cross-­‐culturally,  but  more  significantly  in   western  cultures.   iv. Actor-­‐Observer  Bias▯the  tendency  to  make  dispositional   attributions  for  others’  behaviors  and  situational  attributions   for  our  own  bad  behaviors.   c. Attitudes▯feelings  that  predispose  our  actions.   i. Attitudes  affect  our  actions,  and  actions  affect  our  attitudes.   ii. We  tend  to  seek  consistency  between  what  we  say,  think  and   do.   iii. Cognitive  Dissonance▯the  tension  that  occurs  when  our   attitudes  and  actions  don’t  match.   1. We  will  change  our  attitudes  to  justify  our  behaviors.   2. Festinfer  and  Carlsmith  1959   a. They  made  subjects  complete  a  very  long  and   boring  task  and  then  asked  them  to  lie  to  the   next  subjects  saying  it  was  exciting  and  fun.  The   subjects  were  paid  either  $1  or  $20  for  lying.   Those  who  were  paid  $1  rated  the  task  as  being   more  favorable  in  a  survey  after  the  event.   b. The  $1  provided  a  low  justification  for  lying,  so   the  subjects  experienced  cognitive  dissonance   and  changed  their  attitudes.   d. Role  Absorption  ▯we  tend  to  adopt  the  roles  to  fit  the  situation  we   are  in.         i. Zimbardo  Prison  Study  (Stanford  Prison  Experiment)  1971   1. Half  of  subjects  were  randomly  chosen  to  be  guards,   and  the  other  half  were  chosen  to  be  prisoners  in  a   mock  prison  experiment.   2. Prisoners  were  there  for  24  hours,  guards  came  in  8   hour  shifts.   3. “Pretend”  quickly  became  reality.   4. They  had  to  cancel  the  study  after  6  days  because  the   guards  became  abusive.   5. Showed  that  situations  exert  powerful  influences.   6. Social  pressure.   e. Conformity▯changing  one’s  beliefs  or  behaviors  to  match  a  group’s   beliefs  due  to  unspoken  group  pressure.   i. Asch  Conformity  Experiments   1. Tested  people▯asked  which  lines  are  the  same  length,   everyone  else  gave  the  obviously  wrong  answer.   2. 30%  of  the  subjects  followed  the  group  and  gave  the   wrong  answer.   ii. Social  norms▯learned  cultural  rules.   iii. Conformity  increases  with  unanimous  majority.   f. Compliance▯going  along  with  a  request  made  by  someone  who  is  not   an  authority  figure.   i. Indirect  methods   1. Foot-­‐in-­‐the-­‐Door  technique   a. Small  request  followed  by  a  large  request.   2. Door-­‐in-­‐the-­‐Face  technique   a. Large  request  followed  by  a  small  request.   g. Obedience▯going  along  with  a  demand  made  by  an  authority  figure.   i. Milgram’s  obedience  studies   1. Subject  is  put  in  the  role  of  a  teacher  and  instructed  to   deliver  increasingly  intense  shocks  to  a  “student”  who   gives  wrong  answers.   2. As  reactions  from  the  shock  victims  intensified,  65%  of   the  subjects  continued  to  shock  the  victim  up  to  450   volts  if  instructed  to.   3. Ethics   a. Subjects  were  given  a  debriefing  afterwards,  and   follow-­‐up  studies  were  done.   4. Today  the  results  would  probably  be  similar.   5. Conclusion:  “The  most  fundamental  lesson  of  our  study   is  that  ordinary  people,  simply  doing  their  jobs,  and   without  any  particular  hostility  on  their  part,  can   become  agents  in  a  terrible  destructive  process.”   ii. Why  do  we  obey?   1. Authority.   2. Responsibility.   3. The  power  of  the  situation.   iii. Historical  Example-­‐Nazi  Germany.   III. Group  Influence   a. Deindividuation▯when  people  behave  in  uncharacteristic  ways   because  they  feel  anonymous  and  less  accountable.   b. Groupthink▯when  a  group  is  unable  to  make  wise  decisions  because   they  are  unable  to  realistically  consider  options  due  to  group   dynamics.   i. Focus  on  consensus.   ii. Conditions  that  promote  groupthink.   1. Isolation.   2. Illusions  of  superiority.   3. Suppression  of  dissenting  views.   4. Leader  favors  a  particular  position.   iii. Avoiding  groupthink.   1. Designate  a  devil’s  advocate.   2. Allow  anonymous  expression  of  opinion.   3. Discuss  ideas  with  outsiders.   c. Stereotypes▯beliefs  about  a  group.   i. False  assumptions  that  all  members  of  a  group  share  the  same   characteristics.   d. Prejudice▯unjustified  evaluations  or  judgments  of  a  person  based  on   their  group  membership.   i. Legitimizing  ideology▯justifies  inequalities.   e. Discrimination▯actions  that  display  prejudice.   f. Overt  attitudes▯attitudes  we  are  aware  of  having.   g. Implicit  attitudes▯attitudes  beneath  our  consciousness.   i. Implicit  Association  Test  (IAT)   1. Reveals  how  closely  connected  particular  concepts  are   in  our  minds  by  how  quickly  we  can  associate  words   and/or  pictures.   a. Pictures  of  black  or  white  people  holding  tools  or   guns  popped  up  and  people  had  to  rapidly  decide   whether  to  shoot  them  or  not.   i. They  often  shot  black  people  holding   tools.   h. Roots  of  Prejudice   i. Our  tendency  to  categorize  people  and  objects  into  groups  to   simplify  things.   ii. Illusory  correlations▯we  often  believe  the  behavior  of  one   person  is  associated  with  the  whole  group.   iii. Confirmation  bias▯we  notice  and  remember  examples  that   confirm  our  beliefs.   iv. Ingroup  Favoritism▯we  tend  to  evaluate  our  groups  more   favorable,  even  if  the  group  was  assigned  randomly.   v. We  can  learn  prejudice.   vi. Scapegoating▯blaming  others  when  things  go  wrong.   vii. Social  inequalities.   viii. Just  World  Phenomenon▯the  belief  that  people  get  what  they   deserve.   1. The  world  is  just.   2. Leads  to  blaming  the  victim.   3. Shock  experiment▯people  saw  a  woman  receiving   electric  shocks,  and  they  perceived  her  as  being  bad  or   deserving  the  shocks  somehow.   ix. Hindsight  Bias▯outcomes  seem  obvious  after  the  fact.   1. Leads  to  blaming  the  victim.   2. Date  experiment▯people  read  a  date  scenario.  In  half  of   the  scenarios,  the  woman  was  sexually  assaulted  at  the   end.  In  these  scenarios,  the  subjects  said  the  woman  did   things  to  provoke  the  sexual  assault.   x. The  privileged  fail  to  notice  their  privilege.   i. Helping  Behavior   i. The  Bystander  Effect▯we  are  less  likely  to  help  someone  in   need  when  other  people  are  around.   1. The  murder  of  Kitty  Genovese-­‐1964   2. Diffusion  of  responsibility.   ii. Factors  that  influence  helping:   1. If  the  need  for  help  is  clear.   2. If  people  know  each  other.   3. If  we  are  in  a  good  mood.   a. Feel-­‐good,  do-­‐good.   4. If  the  person  seems  similar  to  us.   5. If  the  person  is  judged  to  be  deserving.   6. Areas  with  less  population  density.   7. If  we  are  not  in  a  hurry.   8. If  the  benefits  outweigh  the  costs.   j. Interpersonal  Attraction   i. Keys  to  Attraction   1. Physical  proximity   a. Geographic  nearness   2. Mere-­‐exposure  effect▯we  tend  to  like  what  is  familiar.   3. Similarity  in  attitudes,  beliefs,  interests,  opinions,   habits,  SES,  background,  religion,  race,  etc.   4. Physical  attractiveness  is  more  important  in  the  early   stages  of  a  relationship.  


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