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Lecture 13: Treatment of Disorders

by: Gigi

Lecture 13: Treatment of Disorders PSY150A1

Marketplace > University of Arizona > Psychlogy > PSY150A1 > Lecture 13 Treatment of Disorders
GPA 4.0
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz

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About this Document

These are the in-class lecture 13 notes over the treatment of disorders. I also used the textbook to detail some of the definitions!
Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1)
Adam Lazarewicz
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gigi on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY150A1 at University of Arizona taught by Adam Lazarewicz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Psychology 150A: Structure of Mind and Behavior (PSY 150A1) in Psychlogy at University of Arizona.


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Date Created: 12/02/15
PSY150A1 Structure of Mind and Behavior Lecture Outline 13 Treatment of Psychological Disorders Types of Therapy Psychotherapy psychologically based therapy where a therapist uses psychological techniques to help someone overcome psychological difficulties amp disorders resolve problems in living or bring about personal growth The goal is to produce psychological change in a person through discussions and interactions with the therapist Biomedical Therapy relies on drugs and medical procedures to improve psychological functioning Eclectic approach combines aspects of two or more different approaches to meet the needs of a client Choosing among therapy approaches 1 Depends on therapist s approach training 2 Depends on the disorder Clinical psychologist PhD w about 5 years of training and have completed a postgraduate internship They specialize in assessment and treatment of psychological difficulties providing psychotherapy amp some can prescribe drugs Psychiatrist MD w postgraduate training in psychological disorders that treat the most severe disorders because they can prescribe medication Counseling psychologist PhD treat daytoday adjustment problems often in a university mental health clinic Clinical social worker provide therapy for common family amp personal problems Psychodynamic therapy seeks to bring unresolved past con icts amp unacceptable impulses from the unconscious into the conscious people using defense mechanisms such as repression Four Psychotherapy Techniques 1 Psychoanalysis Freud s psychotherapy in which the goal is to release hidden thoughts and feelings from the unconscious part of the mind in order to reduce their power in controlling behavior Free association say aloud whatever comes to mind Dream Interpretation looing for clues to unconscious con icts and problems in dreams Frequent sessions for a long time Resistance inability or unwillingness to discuss or reveal particular memories thoughts or motivations For example a patient discussing a childhood memory may suddenly forget what they were saying or abruptly change the subject Transference the transfer of feelings to a psychoanalyst of love or anger that had been originally directed to a patient s parents of other authority figures Therapists use this to help patients recreate relationships that were psychologically difficult For example if a patient undergoing transference views her therapist as a symbol of her father with whom she had a difficult relationship with the patient and therapist may redo an earlier interaction including more positive aspects Benefits of psychoanalysis Viable treatment For some it provides solutions to difficult psychological issues treatment for psychological disturbance amp permits potential development of an unusual degree of insight into one39s life Criticisms of psychoanalysis Time consuming amp expensive Less articulate patients may not do as well Difficulty in establishing whether patients have improved after psychodynamic therapy reports are biased 2 Humanistic therapy Focuses on selfresponsibility in treatment techniques draws on philosophical perspective of selfresponsibility in developing treatment techniques humanistic therapists view themselves as guides or facilitators Therapists seek to help people understand themselves and find ways to come closer to the ideal they hold for themselves Disorders result for the inability to find meaning in life and from loneliness amp lack of connection to others Clientcentered therapy helps people to reach their potential for selfactualization using unconditional positive regard goal is to reach one s potential for selfactualization Warm amp accepting environment therapists motivate clients to air their problems amp feelings Active listening requires the listener to feed back what they hear to the speaker by way of restating or paraphrasing what they have heard in their own words to confirm what they have heard and moreover to confirm the understanding of both parties Benefits of humanistic therapy Therapists that acknowledge the freedom we possess can lead to psychological difficulties clients find a supportive environment for therapy Helpful atmosphere Criticisms of humanistic therapy Humanistic treatments lack specificity Least scientifically and theoretically developed Works best for the highly verbal client 3 Behavioral therapy Help modify behavior rather than find underlying causes builds on the basic processes of learning such as reinforcement amp extinction to reduce or eliminate maladaptive behavior They assume that behavior is learned Focuses on modifying external behavior Classical Conditioning Treatments Aversive conditioning Therapy that reduces the frequency of undesired behavior by pairing an aversive unpleasant stimulus with undesired behavior Example pairing alcohol with a drug that causes severe illness Works well in inhibiting substance abuse Critics question its longterm effectiveness Systematic desensitization exposure to an anxietyproducing stimulus is paired with deep relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety learning to associate relaxation to extinguish the response of anxiety Example learning relaxation techniques Flooding treatment for anxiety in which people are suddenly confronted with a stimulus that they fear goal is to allow the maladaptive response of anxiety or avoidance to become extinct proven effective in many problems such as phobias and people learn to enjoy the things they once feared Operant Conditioning Techniques Token economy rewards a person for desired behavior with a token such as a poker chip or play money that can later be exchanged for an actual reward most frequently used in institutional settings for individuals with relatively serious problems and sometimes with children as a school technique Benefits of behavioral therapy Works well for eliminating anxiety disorders treating phobias and compulsions establishing control over impulses and learning complex social skills to replace maladaptive behavior provides methods for nonprofessionals to change their own behavior it focuses on solving carefully defined problems Criticisms of behavioral therapy Because it emphasizes changing external behavior people do not necessarily gain insight into thoughts and expectations that may be fostering their maladaptive behavior 4 Cognitive therapy teaches people to think in more adaptive ways by changing their dysfunctional cognitions about the world and themselves focuses on changing the way people think Cognitivebehavioral therapy CBT a treatment approach that incorporates basic approach that incorporates basic principles of learning to change the way people think Rationalemotive therapy ABC model attempts to restructure a person s belief system into a more realistic rational and logical set of views Irrational beliefs trigger negative emotions and lead to a selfdefeating cycle A Negative activating condition ex close relationship breaks up B Irrational Belief system I ll never be loved againquot C Emotional consequences anxiety loneliness sadness depression Benefits of cognitive therapy Proved successful in dealing with broad range of disorders anxiety depression substance abuse eating disorders Willingness of cognitive therapists to incorporate additional treatments approaches makes it effective Criticisms of cognitive therapy Focus on helping people to think more rationally ignores the fact that life is in reality sometimes irrational May not always be helpful So Does Psychotherapy Work Does Psychotherapy Work Psycheannmrc Pbrsor or momcentered Frydarn K duwnmltrahnn 8eh evm39e theram Commm behawo39w V 1 I 39 l 60 7n Ftquot 00 SmutM rum ryemanage More ettective than no treatment for most people Certain types 01 therapy work better tor partlcular problems Most therapy approaches share basic elements Biomedical Therapy Antipsychotic drugs drugs that temporarily reduce psychotic symptoms such as agitation hallucinations and delusions block dopamine receptors amp affect both serotonin amp dopamine levels chlorpromazine thorozine used to treat schizophrenia Antidepressant drugs used to treat depression Prozac Zoloft Paxil SSRI39s block serotonin reuptake tricyclic increase amount of norepinephrine Mood stabilizers used to treat bipolar mania lithiumsimple salt often paired with antidepressants benefits 70 of bipolar patients no idea why Antianxiety drugs ex Xanax valium Depress nervous system activity effective but may mask actual issues Alternative Forms of Therapy Electroconvulsive therapy ECT Used as the only quickly effective treatment for severe depression treats severe depression induces electrical seizures usually 612 sessions 23x per week Anti Possible brain damage Short term memory issues around treatments Follow up treatments meds needed High success rate for difficult cases No solid evidence of risk Transcranial magnetic stimulation TMS uses magnetic pulses to stimulate targeted brain areas non invasive effective for treating depressions strokes spinal injuries negative symptoms of schizophrenia Psychosurgery Brain surgery to reduce the symptoms of mental disorders surgery that removes destroys brain tissue last resort Prefrontal lobotomy surgery to damage frontal lobe connections to other areas intended to control emotional violent patients Designed to be easy quick procedure to be preformed at mental hospitals 10 minutes Procedure 1 Patient into coma using shock 2 Insert ice pick through each eye socket into brain 3 Wiggle ice pick around remove and bandage eyes Left patients in lethargic state sometimes immaturity impulsivity Cingulotomy surgically targets anterior cingulate to treat 0CD alternative to lobotomy Gamma knife surgery Beams of radiation used to treat 0CD


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