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Week of 11/30 Notes

by: Loren Agee

Week of 11/30 Notes 197

Marketplace > Illinois State University > Biology > 197 > Week of 11 30 Notes
Loren Agee

Molecular and Cellular Biology
Wade Nichols

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About this Document

This bundle includes The Osmoregulation and Excretion notes from 11/30, and also the Hormones notes from 12/02.
Molecular and Cellular Biology
Wade Nichols
Class Notes
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Loren Agee on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 197 at Illinois State University taught by Wade Nichols in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see Molecular and Cellular Biology in Biology at Illinois State University.


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Date Created: 12/02/15
Osmoregulation amp Excretion Notes Balancing Water Osmoregulation the balancing of water and solutes in physiological systems 0 Osmoconformers some marine animals that have same osmolarity as environment 0 Osmoregulators all other animals that maintain a range of osmolarity by regulated function Challenges of Osmoregulation Marine fish high salt concentration in water will tend to cause animal to lose water and take up salt 0 To balance the animal will need to excrete salt and consume water Freshwater fishlow salt concentration in water will tend to cause animal to lose salt and take up water 0 To balance the animal will need to excrete water and retain consumed salts Land animals low water concentration will tend to dehydrate the animal 0 To balance the animal will need to consume and retain water Osmoregulation comes at a significant energetic cost because it often uses active transport to maintain a gradient between the animal and the environment Excretion and Waste Excretion the removal of harmful molecules Nitrogenous waste from breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids 0 Different types of animals excrete nitrogenous waste in different forms 0 Ammonia very toxic so it needs to be diluted in surrounding water Aquatic animals 0 Urea Less toxic than ammonia but requires significant energy to convert ammonia to urea and also needs to be diluted for excretion resulting in water loss Mammals amphibians some fish 0 Uric acid a relatively nontoxic form of nitrogenous waste Excreted as semisolid paste Even more energy needed to convert ammonia to uric acid but since excreted as paste there is little loss of water for excretion Birds and reptiles Steps in Excretion Filtration water and solutes are forced out of capillary into a collection tube Reabsorption water and important substances are reclaimed from the tube Secretion unneeded or harmful molecules are secreted from cells into the tube Excretion the waste solution leaves the body Human Excretion In humans the kidneys perform much of the work of excretion o The kidney has two distinct regions Renal cortex outer layer of kidneys Renal medulla inner layer of kidneys Renal artery brings blood to the capillaries in kidneys Renal vein delivers blood from capillaries back to the heart Filtration of blood occurs in specialized structures called nephrons Waste collected in nephrons goes to large tube called the ureter Then collects in the bladder until excretion occurs via the urethra Nephron Function Blood enters via an arteriole Goes to a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus 0 High blood pressure here forces water and solutes out of the capillaries This collected in a cupshaped structures called Bowman s capsule Collected fluid then enters the proximal tubule 0 Much water and useful solutes are reabsorbed from this structure Fluid then enters the Loop of Henle o Descending loop goes from cortex to medulla Continued reabsorption of water 0 Ascending loop goes from the medulla to the cortex No water channels in tissue so not much reabsorption of water here Fluid then enters the distal loop where some more water is reabsorbed o This area is also very important for maintaining KNaCl balance Finally the fluid passes through a collection duct into the ureter At this point most of the water initially lost in the glomerulus has been reclaimed as well as useful solutes Urea and other waste material has been diluted by water and collected in ureters and delivered to the bladder Hormones Notes The endocrine system Endocrine system long range cell signaling 0 Organs in system are called glands Hormones signaling molecules that act as ligands to cell receptors Hormone Structure 0 Three main classes of hormones o Polypeptides proteins that serve as signaling molecule lnsulin o Steroids based on cholesterol these have four ring structures 0 Amines synthesized from a single amino acid Water and Lipid Soluble Hormones Functionally these can be divided into two broader classes Watersoluble polypeptides and hydrophilic amines epinephrine Lipidsoluble steroids and hydrophobic amines thyroxine 0 Water soluble hormones will bind to membrane associated receptors May then cause either cytoplasmic or nuclear response 0 Lipid soluble hormones bind to receptors within the target cell Will cause nuclear response and alter transcription pattern Endocrine Glands and Function Pineal gland melatonin o Regulates sleep patterns Hypothalamus closely associated structurally and functionally with pituitary gland o Hormones from hypothalamus regulate pituitary activity Pituitary gland divided into anterior and posterior pituitary function 0 Wide range of effects across multiple systems 0 Regulation gonads growth hormone lactation water retention and social behavior Thyroid gland main regulator of metabolic function 0 Thyroid disorders can cause too high or too low metabolism Parathyroid adjacent to thyroid gland 0 Works with thyroid to regulate calcium Adrenal glands epinephrine and norepinephrine 0 Fight or flight response Pancreas In addition to role in digestion it secretes insulin 0 lnsulin decreases levels of glucose in the blood Gonads o Ovaries females produce estrogens and progestins Estrogens are involved in development of secondary sex characteristics and in the stimulation of the uterine lining during the menstrual cycle Progestins are involved in the growth of uterine lining during pregnancy 0 Testes males produces androgens Involved in sperm formation and development of secondary sex characteristics Hypothalamus and Pituitary Physically connected Hypothalamus receives input from multiple systems in the boyd Interacts with pituitary in two ways 0 Posterior pituitary An extension of the hypothalamus It secretes neurohormones that are synthesized in the thalamus o Anterior pituitary A unique gland that is regulated by hormones released by hypothalamus Calcium Balance Parathyroid gland produces hormone that increases Ca in blood 0 Bones release Ca and increase uptake in kidneys Also increase vitamin D synthesis with increases absorption of Ca in intestines Thyroid gland produces calcitonin which inhibits breakdown of bones to balance Stress and the Adrenal Glands Hypothalamus receives information about stress Sends immediate nerve impulse that stimulate adrenal glands to make epinephrine 0 Immediate dramatic effect 0 Also secretes steroids that have longer term effect of adrenal glands 0 Sodium and water balance blood pressure metabolic activity


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