Week 13 notes
Week 13 notes CHEM-10055-003-201580
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hanna Notetaker on Wednesday December 2, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM-10055-003-201580 at Kent State University taught by Bansidhar Datta (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see MOLECULES OF LIFE in Chemistry at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 12/02/15
Chem week 13 Reactions of carboxylic acids with amines amides Rate of enzymes CATA LASE H202 is very toxic to cells so it needs to be degraded by an enzyme quickly H2029catalyst9 catalyst H20 12 02 o Kcat 40x106sec o 1 molecule of catalase degrades 40 million H202 per 1 second 02 C029 lungs blood cells mitochondria complex V9 H202 02 o if they are not degraded fast enough enters cells which causes damage to all biomolecule5DNA RNA protiens enzymes etc 9 mutations diseases cancer Alzheimer s etc LYSOZYME saliva bacteria lysozyme 9 degraded killed 0 kcat 05 sec 0 takes 2 seconds to kill 1 bacteria 0 1 sec to kill 5 bacteria Cyclic compounds Alkanes hydrocarbons w single covalent bonds joining the carbons HnemgfonnumCnH2n2 cyclic formula CnH2n cyclopropane cyclobutane cyclopentane cyclohexane etc I cyclohexane I cyclopropane A alkenes have 1 or more CC double bond 0 cyclic formula CnH2n o cyclo 13 butidiene has 2 double bonds o benzene I benzene has conjugated double bonds this means that V I precursor of many biomolecules the double bonds alternate I aka cyclo 246 hexatriene o isoprene aka 2 methyl butadiene eg I UQ complex 3 of mitochondria I Dolicol phosphate synthesis of carbs I Retinol vit A good for eyes in carrots 0 Isoprene 9 9 9 retinol Retingl alcohol I 15 carbons conjugated double bond 0 retinol oxidizes9 RCHO9 binds to the protein opsin in rodsamp cones9 R CHN RHODOPSIN o retinol opsin rhodopsin o l 0 retinol oxidizes 9 RCHO9 cells 9 RCOH9 9RETNOC ACID tissue development 0 alcohols OH o phenol O I very acidic 0 this is bc electrons are moving around I partially soluble in H20 I think of it like a benzene alc If the OH was taken off of phenol it would be a benzene I functions clean kills bacteria and germs o polyphenol H OH I Zor more phenols I acidic I soluble I functions as antioxidant helps antiaging oxidants damage cells found in green tea OH HO O O o resveratrol 0 39 acidic 39 soluble I functions as antioxidant found in grapes wine why is phenol acidic Delocalization give up proton negative charge moves to carbon electrons rotate very stable when H20 proton is taken quickly 9 acidic alcohol amines o punnes I groups of 2 rings that make up nitrogenous bases 6 5K 1 Nk 39 gt8 2N 4 N9 3 H o pyrimidines has the nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 in the ring aromatic Huckel s Rule any cyclic compound with 4n2 7t electrons aromatic compound 11 of rings 4 5 N3 6NJ2 1 6 7t electrons ex benzene aromatic n 1 412 6 o aromatic compounds must follow huckel s rule can be detected by UV light o delocalization removal of electron density from groupatom because of resonance or other effects oeo o DNARNA Sugar in nucleic acids pentose sugars 5C 0 Nucleotides base sugar phosphate 0 Nucleosides base sugar 2 types of bases purines and pyrimidines Purines o A adenine I location of amino group C6 I aromatic H2N N N x N N H I G Guanine ISOGuanine Arti cial DNA NH 1 m k l s L gt quoti quot gt r A of Ner 0 J T Ketone stable Enol degrades I 2 amino 6 oxo purine Keto form and enol form both aromatic o Keto Vore stable o Enol Alcohol 0 Pyrimidines o C Cytosine NH2 N 39 A N I H cytosine O I Aromatic I N lone pair o T Thymine O thymine 0 H moves aromatic o U Uracil O l H 60 H uracil 2 types of sugars D ribose amp DDeoxyribose o D ribose D RiboseRNA norma sugar w 0 at each C atom H 0 3 O DRibose o Deoxyribose DeoxyriboseDNA modified sugar quotdeoxyquot9 lacks oxygen atom difference at carbon 2 Ho quotCH7 OH H H H H OH H Deoxyribose o nucleotides nucleic acids DNA amp RNA 0 w o ACGI o Deoxyribose o PO4339 0 w o ACG39 o Dribose 0 P043 In gurines o Nucleoside base ACGU sugar diRibose Adenine 9 Adenosine Adenosine Monophoshate HN N N N N HO lt I O gt N N o N Nil Ho rIDI o 4N N lt I o N A H N 9 OH OH 9 OHOH o dehydration reaction I dehydration reactions makes nucleotides by removing water AMP9 ADP9 ATP Adenomonophosphate 9 adenosondiphosphate adenosinetriphosphate When OH group is removed dATP deoxyadenosinetriphosphate ATP is in RNA 10 In Pyrimidines In RNA UTP in DNA dUTP diribiose uracil uridine 0 Uridine 3 phosphate groups Hpo w a 9 IN RNA 0 if 1 mono phosphate group UMP o if 2 di phosphate groups UDP o if 3 tri phosphate groups UTP 11 Sources httpwwwsigmaaIdrichcomcontentdamsigma aIdrichstructure0186mfcd00003814epsjcr contentrenditionsmfchOOO3814 mediumpng https40mediatumblrcomtumbr u3zoszUK1r2annvol 1280png httpsupoadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthumb550lsoprenesvg100px Isoprenesvgpng httpsupoadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthumb88bPhenol2svg2000px Pheno2svgpng httpsupoadwikimediaorgwikipediacommonsthumb774Theaflavin 3galatepng220px Theaflavin 3gallatepng 12
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