Week 12 Lecture Notes
Week 12 Lecture Notes PSY 277
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rk18370p on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 277 at Pace University taught by Robert Keegan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Evolutionary Psychology in Psychlogy at Pace University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Week 12 Lecture Notes 12115 Psychoanalytical View of Depression Freud Loss of some kind Interpreted as an abandonment Anger Guilt Punish themselves a Depression is anger turned inwards PWNE Biological Psychology View of Depression 1 No single gene that produces depression a Although certain types of genetics put you at higher risk 2 Look at correlation between brain chemicals and depression a Doesn39t mean cause and effect i Bidirectionality 1 We don39t know what causes depression What comes rst in depression Low levels or serotonin or something else b Brain chemicals that play a role i Serotonin 1 Lower levels more likely low because of depression 2 Medication helps boost serotonin levels a Main cure is to use drugs i SSRI Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors 1 Keeps more serotonin in the brain b When verbal and drug therapy doesn39t work then ECT Electroconvulsive Therapy i Shoot voltage through the brain 1 Sometimes it works a Side effect is often memory loss c Type of Depression known as SAD Seasonal Affective Emotional Disorder i Only occurs 1 time a year winter 1 Occurs because of lack of light a Treated with light therapy 3 Diathesis Stress Model a Environmental Factor b Predisposition i quothigher riskquot for depression 1 Genetic Predisposition a Short alleles 2 Bad Early Experience 4 Cognitive Model of Stress a Thinking and learning process b Aaron Beck i Thought source of depression was faulty thinking 1 Minimization a Giving away your successes Week 12 Lecture Notes 12115 i Only thinks about what went wrong ii Think they just got lch and their successes had nothing to do with them b Magni cation i quotown your failuresquot ii Exaggerate them ii Proposed Cognitive Triad 1 Feel badly or negatively about yourself a Low selfesteem 2 Feel badly about present situation or circumstances 3 Feel badly about the future a Person feels helpless 5 Cognitive Model of Stress a Martin Seligman i Experiment used dogs as subjects 3 dogs at a time ii Part 1 1 Dog 3 received no electric shocks 2 Dog 1 dogs learn to jump over the low wall Electric shocks did not affect the brain 3 Dog 2 did not learn to jump to the other side b Seligman concluded source of depression was learned helplessness 6 Evolutionary Psychology View of Depression a Fightstruggle and you lose i What is the adaptive thing to do next 1 Withdraw up to a point and heal a If it becomes prolonged or exaggerated it becomes maladaptive Week 12 Lecture Notes 12115 b SAD why in winter i Lack of light ii Hibernation withdraw low energy 1 Adaptive goes wrong when it gets exaggerated c Phobia intense fear i Proposed byJohn Watson 1 Behaviorism a Classical conditioning i Association by contiguity next to ii quotLittle Albertquot Experiment 1920 1 11 months old 2 UCS Unconditioned stimulus a Gong 3 UCR Unconditioned Response a Fear 4 CS Conditioned Stimulus a White Rat b CS has to be neutral can39t produce the UCR 5 CR Conditioned Response a Fear iii In conclusion phobias are learned and implies that you can become phobic of anything 2 Bregman 193039s a Replicate Watson39s work classical conditioning i Used animals animate objects classical conditioning worked ii Used inanimate objects and classical conditioning did not work b Explained that there was something wrong with Classical Conditioning 3 Martin Seligman Phobia a Surveyed adults with phobia i Phobias are very restricted 1 Animals snakesspiders 2 Situations open spacesclosed spaces high up dark spaces ii Why 1 Preparedness a Throughout our evolution to fear certain animals in situations b Because they are all potentially dangerous c It would be adaptive to have built into us Signal Detection Theory see handout Evolutionary View of Phobia Week 12 Lecture Notes 12115 1 Seligman39s quotPreparednessquot a Prepared to fear certain dangerous situations adaptive response 2 Adaptive Conservation a Overreaction exaggeration of an adaptive response maladaptive 3 Phobia and Depression are related because it s an overreaction and maladaptive a Cute and Cuddly babies and animals i Neoteny releasing stimulus signs of quotnewnessquot b Red Belly Males and Swollen Belly Females releasing stimuli which is behaviors 4 Bottom Line a The more babies are held and cared for they have a better immune system and better mental health b We are wired to want to pick up new things and hold them