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Exam 2- Weekly Notes

by: Emma Myhre

Exam 2- Weekly Notes PSYCH 270

Emma Myhre
GPA 2.791

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This is similar to lecture, but also what is defined in the book
Abnormal Psychology
Dr. Virginia Clinton
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emma Myhre on Friday April 1, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 270 at University of North Dakota taught by Dr. Virginia Clinton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 93 views.


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Date Created: 04/01/16
Chapter 6 Major depressive disorder: 2wks, 5+) depressed mood, loss of interest, weight loss, loss in appetite, insomnia, hypersomnia, mentally slowed down, fatigue, worthlessness, difficulty to concentrate, thoughts of death Persistent depressive disorder: 2 yrs. off and on, 2+) poor appetite, insomnia, hypersomnia, fatigue, low self-esteem, difficulty thinking, hopelessness Double depression: people w/ persistent depressive disorder and also major depressive episodes Major depressive disorder w/ Peripartum onset: 6wks-1yr, Symp) weight change, withdrawal, feelings of inadequacy, thoughts of harming self or baby Postpartum blues: 80% of all women, normal, weepiness, irritability, 3-14 days after birth, due to hormone crash at day 3 Major depressive disorder w/ seasonal pattern: winter-too much sleep, too much food. Summer- too much sunlight, to little sleep, not enough food Bipolar I (full mania): Manic episode- 1wk, 3+) high self-esteem, decrease need for sleep, more talkative, flight of ideas, distractibility, increase in goal activities, lots of high painful consequenceful activities. Can need to be hospitalized. ALSO, MDD criteria Bipolar II (hypomania): 4 days, 3+) +) high self-esteem, decrease need for sleep, more talkative, flight of ideas, distractibility, increase in goal activities, lots of high painful consequenceful activities. No need to be hospitalized. ALSO, MDD criteria Cyclothymic disorder: symps alternate between hypomanic and depressive Creativity and mood disorders: 59-77%, high in those w/ arts, artists/music high in maniac Bipo disorders, architects/writers/poets high in MDD Suicidal ideation: thoughts of death --Passive: wish to be dead, but does not have any planning --Active: thoughts about how to commit the act, where, when, how Parasuicide: behaviors such as superficial cutting of the wrists or overdoes of nonlethal amounts of medications, unlikely to result in death Suicide attempts: taking pills indicates a non-lethal way, however violent attempts such as hanging, gunshot, or jumping from a building, previous attempts at suicide increase the risk 30- 40 times more likely to commit. These require treatment Gender differences in methods and suicide: males are more likely to commit suicide, females are more likely to report suicidal ideation. Males choose more lethal methods than females Risk factors for suicide: --Family history: suicide in family can be seen across generations --Psychiatric illness: 90% of attempts, and completed suicides have a connection w/ disorders, MDD and suicide, suicide common w/ Bipo --Aggressive and Impulsive behavior: much related to BipoI&II, caused by low serotonin --Biological factors: low levels of serotonin, causes aggressive and impulsive thoughts and behaviors --Copycat Suicide: one suicide becomes a compelling model for successive suicides, duplication of one suicide that the person attempting suicide knows about either from media, other persons, or descriptions Psychological autopsy: an attempt to identify psychological causes of suicide by interviewing family, friends, coworkers, and health care providers Biological etiological factors of depression: mood disorders are heritable, ~90% in Bipo, serotonin regulates mood and there is abnormal levels in depression, Norepinephrine has low levels in depression, dopamine leads to psychosis Biological treatments of depression: st --Antidepressants: help make neurotrans work normally, 1 gen- (tricyclic, and monoamine nd oxidase inhibitors MAOIs) weight gain, probs w/ sleep, low sex drive, food sensitive, 2 gen- SSRIs has limited side effects and works on serotonin --Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT): give patient seizure, creates over activity in brain, last resource if not responding to meds or other treatment, really effective, memory probs, muscle spasms --Light Therapy: SAD, seeing the light changes hormones, 1 hr for morning and evening --Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: painless magnetic pulses, brain regions stimulated, effective, stimulates part of brain for activity targets region to treat depression. Biological treatments of bipolar disorders: --Lithium: metallic element used to treat Bipo, moderates glutamate levels in brain --Anticonvulsants: not completely known how it works, helps w/ neurotrans --Atypical Antipsychotics: full mania w/ hallucinations --ECT: used for severe depressive episodes in Bipo, prolonged mania, or catatonia Behaviorist explanations for depression: mood disorders rooted by environment, depression because of lack of + reinforcement to how they can enjoy themselves, difficulty to function as an adult, hard time being around others avoid people which causes a lack of socialization, makes it worse. Behavioral activation: treatment that schedules pleasurable activities, social skills training, and time management, increase in + reinforcement Thought distortions in depression: faulty thinking patterns --dichotomous thinking: one way or another --overgeneralizing: one experience is bad for rest --catastrophizing: small thing went wrong, everything is ruined --personalizing: everything about you -ly, assume bad things are happening to you CBT for bipolar: discussing the feeling of a mania, develop skills to change inappropriate or - thought patterns Interpersonal and social rhythm therapy Bipo: promotes adherence to regular daily routines, healthier relationships, routines and schedules to regulate mood CBT for Depression: focus on changing thoughts to changing actions, understand how thoughts, perceptions, and behaviors influence depression Interpersonal psychotherapy Depress: how to communicate w/ others as a part of the social aspect of depression Chapter 7 Anorexia nervosa: Low body weight according to BMI, fear of gaining weight or becoming fat even though very underweight --Restricting Type: 3mnth, has not engaged in episodes of binge eating and purging, weight loss accomplished by dieting, fasting, or excessive exercise --Binge-eating/purging type: 3 mnth, has engaged in episodes of binge eating or purging, such as vomiting or the misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas Bulimia nervosa: Recurrent episodes of binge eating via discrete period of time and food is in large amounts or a sense of lack of control over eating, 1 per week for 3mnth Compensatory behaviors: actions of using items to counteract binge or to prevent weight gain Binge eating disorder: regular binge eating behaviors w/out any compensatory behaviors. Usually overweight or obese, recurrent episodes, in 2hrs- eating rapidly, eating past the point of feeling full, earing large amounts, eating alone, feeling disgusted w/ self. Eating disorder not otherwise specified: --atypical anorexia nervosa: all criteria for anorexia nervosa but their weight is w/in or above the normal range --bulimia nervosa-low frequency/limited duration: all criteria for bulimia nervosa but the binge eating and purging happen less than once/week or for less than 3 months --binge eating disorder-low frequency/limited duration: all criteria for binge eating disorder but happens less than once/week or for less than 3 mnth --purging disorder: uses purging behavior or control their weight or shape but they are not binge eating Avoidant restrictive food intake disorder: very narrow range of foods, an eating or feeding disturbance based on apparent lack of interest in eating or food, avoidance based on the sensory characteristics of food, Symp) weight loss, nutritional deficiency, dependence on internal feeding or oral nutritional supplements, interference psychosocial func. Biological Viewpoint Factors: brain acts differently w/ anorexia, they respond more to candy rewards, but obese people do not do the same. Diathesis-Stress Model: genetics/biology, born w/ certain genetic make-up for how patients handle stress, stress in life brings out the problem of anorexia/bulimia Sociocultural etiological factors for anorexia and bulimia --Ideal Body weight: unrealistic --Fiji Study: curvy women was preferred, then when the western media entered the area. 1995- 98, 10% of women were vomiting to maintain their weight. Family models of eating disorders --Enmeshment: focused on family member, enmeshed in their life --Rigidity: not adapting to developmental life, keep treating child as one or let them be 16 --Overprotectiveness: age appropriate allowed activities --Poor Conflict Resolution: cannot come to understanding of differences Cognitive distortions w/ anorexia and bulimia --Black+White: all or nothing --Catastrophizing: overemphasizing the importance of one event and always assuming the worst --Overgeneralizing: making a link between 2 unrelated things to support irrational view --Personalizing and Comparison: comparing ideals between yourself and others, and assuming peoples actions are in response to you Biological treatments for anorexia --Stabilize weight, get enough calories, feel good about self, medicate for symps of anorexia, --Hospitalization: healthy weight, social supports, work, school, suicidal ideation, therapy w/ patient, group, and family, reward them w/ things they want to do by telling them they have to eat first Nutritional counseling: Nutritionists will give advice, what a healthy diet looks like, guiding them w/ food choices Cognitive behavioral therapy: focus on distortions of self, what healthy weight is, address automatic thoughts/how you react to the thoughts, stop having - thoughts, FIND OUT what causes the thoughts, self-monitoring themselves Interpersonal psychotherapy: time-limited therapy approach that focuses on decreasing eating disorder symps by enhancing social skills in relationships, addresses- interpersonal disputes, role transitions, abnormal grief, and interpersonal deficits Dialectical behavior therapy: mindfulness, distress tolerance, interpersonal effectiveness, emotion regulation, teach people skills, don’t let emotions control you Gastric bypass for binge eating disorder: stomach volume decreased, BE more difficult Chapter 8 Alfred Kinsley and the Kinsley scale: first sex researcher, there is a range between hetero and homo, Indiana University Stages of human sexual response --desire: response to external and internal cues --arousal: physical and psychological signs of sexual arousal --orgasm: pleasure that is based in the brain and the genitalia --resolution: more common in men, resting period Differences between men and women in sexual response and activity: men engage in more activity and think about sex more, women equate sexual desire w/ a need for emotional intimacy Sexual dysfunction: absence or impairment of some aspect of sexual response that causes distress or impairment, based on: desire-start sexual response stage, orgasm-not have a climax w/o it, pain-prevent attempts at sex Subtypes for all disorders --acquired or lifelong: acquired at a certain age --generalized or situational: situation for a particular object/individual Female sexual interest arousal disorder: 6mnth, female doesn’t want sex 75% of time, psychological reasons-sex is wrong, physiological reasons-heart probs w/ blood flow --etiological factors and treatment: hormonal imbalances, testosterone therapy, female Viagra, and for anxiety and stress-communication Male hypoactive sexual arousal disorder: 6mnth, no more interest in sex, age and context of person’s life, similar to female arousal disorder Erectile disorder/dysfunction: inability to maintain an erection, man is soft increases as men age, testosterone decreases w/ age --etiological factors and treatment: age, smoking, poor heart, obesity, Prostaglandin E1 and Vacuum Pumps Female orgasmic disorder: 6mnth, no orgasms, consider age stimulation, and sexual experience, not able to climax Male orgasmic disorder: 6mnth, delayed ejaculation, man cannot climax Premature ejaculation: 6 mnth w/in 1 min, 30% peep Etiological factors and treatment of orgasmic disorders: issues w/ orgasm similar to hypoactive desire, females need to masturbate, stop squeeze technique for preejac Genito-pelvic pain disorder: 6 mnth, vaginal penetration during intercourse, pelvic pair during intercourse, fear about pain, tensing a tightening Vaginismus: when outer 1/3 musculature contracts so much make penetration impossible, muscles used in sex=painful response, woman needs right sexual attention Dyspareunia: pain during intercourse, male or female, experiencing pain other than psychological Impact of sexual disorders on the individual: both individuals sexual well-being is affected, impacts self-esteem, sexual relationship, not always overall relationship, only less than 19% of people seek treatment Difference between sex and gender: how cultures identify a person=gender, sex=what you are naturally born w/. Gender dysphoriaADULT: 6 mnth, dressed based on gender, want to rid of one’s primary sex/secondary sex too, wants the sex of another gender, wants to be treated as other gender Biological etiological factors for gender dysphoria: brain of males similar to heterosexual females, prenatal hormone imbalances, hormonal condition, androgen production-too much male hormone in female blood Psychosocial etiological factors for gender dysphoria: parental rejection, parents want a boy born a girl never let you forget that Chapter 9 Substance use: low to moderate-use that do not produce problems w/ social, educational, or occupational func. Substance intoxication: EXTREME – really effects body, substance induced disorder Tolerance: use and abuse, need more and more Withdrawal: physically need substance Delirium tremens: disorientation, severe agitation, high blood pressure, and fever, which can last up to 3-4 days after stopping drinking Alcoholic cirrhosis: liver needs rest, cirrhosis is degeneration of cells, inflammation and thickening, liver usually covered in fat Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome: “Wet Brain”, prevents body from absorbing thyamine, confusion, amnesia, confabulation-fill in the blanks w/ fake information, unsteady gait-shuffle back and forth Behavioral addictions: compulsive behaviors for short-term + benefits, long-term - consequences --controversial: addicted to something you don’t ingest like gambling, similar patterns to substance abuse Etiology: biological scarring- someone is addicted does not have same dopamine --Genetic factors: 50-60% influence, biological parent w/ subabuse 4-5x greater to have it, environment is very influential-live where everyone drinks heavily=you will too --Behavioral factors: PosRein: adding pleasure, use more. NegRein: escape from unpleasant thoughts, w/drawal Treatments --Stimulus avoidance: avoid drug cues, avoid sights, and remove glasses, ads, out of sight out of mind --Abstinence violation effect: someone listens to any feelings toward addiction, sober person tells you no, relapses-tries to learn from mistake --Transtheoretical model and motivational interviewing: encourage people to use treatment, focus on their strengths, goals, and achieving them --Coping skills interventions: learn to deal w/ problem, people w/ disorders need life skills, their use inhibits living right, develop support systems --Aversion therapy and aversive treatments: pair something they use w/ something gross, show pictures of something bad w/ substance, medication-disulfiram=ingest alcohol and puke --Contingency management approaches: blood/urine test=sober, get reward for it. --Twelve step programs: have a higher power, no person leading, people recovering helps another by providing support --Controlled drinking: not physically dependent, perhaps for people not alcoholics, coping skills, moderation management --Harm reduction: put people in wet house to basically die. Chapter 10 Psychosis: severe mental condition characterized by loss of contact with reality Delusions: false belief --delusions of influence: Belief that others control ones behavior or thoughts, move things w/ mind --persecutory delusions: Belief that someone is harming or attempting to harm the person. --Self-significance: you are god, or president --somatic: there is something wrong w/ ur body Hallucination: false sensory perception Schizophrenia: severe psychological disorder characterized by disorganization in thought, perception and behavior. People with this disorder don’t think logically, perceive world accurately or behave in way that permits normal everyday life and work. --positive symptoms: delusions, hallucinations --negative symptoms: catatonia, no emotional expression, anhedonia, avolition, Alogia, psychomotor retardation Loose associations: thoughts that have little or no logical connection to the next thought, I worked at army base. It is important on. I like to travel to AZ. Thought blocking: Long pauses in the patients speech. Clang associations: speech governed by words that sound alike, I like bills, summer hills, and bummer. Catatonia: person is awake but not is not responsive to external stimulation. Anhedonia: Person feels no joy or happiness. Avolition (apathy): Inability to follow through on plans. Alogia: term used to describe decreased quality and/or quantity of speech. Psychomotor retardation: slowed mental or physical activities. Speech slowed to where others can’t understand. Echolalia: repeating verbatim of what others say Social cognition: ability to perceive, interpret, and understand social information including others beliefs, attitudes, and emotions. Brief psychotic disorder: sudden onset of any psychotic symptom, such as delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, or grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. May resolve after 1 and does not last for more than 1 month. Schizophreniform disorder: same as schizophrenia but shorter duration ranging from 1 to 6 months. In a few instances the symptoms seem to disappear. Schizoaffective disorder: patient has both schizophrenia and affective disorder, Jack thought his neighbors were tracking him but not his co-workers Delusional disorder: consists of presence of non-bizarre delusion. Defined as event that might actually happen. Biological etiological factors with psychotic disorders --genetics: heredity, passed on from family members --neurotransmitters: chemical substance that is released at the end of a nerve fiber --neuroanatomy: dramatic abnormalities in perception, thought, and behavior found among people w/ schizophrenia led naturally to consideration of brain abnormalities, which may be structural or functional. --Dopamine hypothesis: increases amount of dopamine level in neural synapse, in turn can lead to development or worsening of psychotic symptoms --Prenatal issues and schizophrenia: associated with later onset of schizophrenia include maternal genital or reproductive infections during time of conception. Expressed emotion: Families emotional involvement and critical attitudes found among people w/ a psychological disorder. --etiological factor: the level of emotional involve and critical attitudes that exist w/in the family of a patient with schizophrenia, these patients will relapse more and need more hospitalization. Gene-environment correlation: person who provides patients genetic makeup also provides environment in which that person lives, did Linda get schizophrenia from mom’s genes or from environment she was fostered in Typical antipsychotics: antipsychotics. Reduce positive symptoms of schizophrenia but produce side effects such as muscle stiffness and, tremors, and tardive dyskinesia. --tardive dyskinesia: common symptoms include movement of tongue (lip licking, fly catching movements), face (tics), jaw (chewing, grinding) Atypical antipsychotics: medication to treat pos. symptoms of schizophrenia. Psychoeducation: process to educate patients/family members. Goal is to reduce distress. CBT for schizophrenia: used to reduce psychotic symptoms. Consists of psychoeducation about psychosis and hallucinations and teaches patient on using coping strategies to deal with symptoms such as hallucinations.


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