Week 14 notes
Week 14 notes ANTH 1001
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia SaoBento on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1001 at George Washington University taught by O'Malley, R in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Biological Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Micro lithic tools- little stones flakes of flakes important for fishing and hunting multi step time consuming process glue and adhesive to make it work Have to be embedded in something else to be useful ‘backed’ tools, harpoons, fishing spears, etc. ALL with emergence MODERN HUMAN Possible Body Ornamentation o symbolism Use of Red Ochre o pinnacle point, south Africa by 165 ka o ground and incised pieces of hematite o selection of most brilliant reds o symbolic? pigment to paint the body? o earlier evidence at kapthurin 280ka Evidence of Early Art Blombos Cave (S. Africa) o 100-70kya o Multiple types of pigments, grinding and storage bowls, fire, beads, bone tools o Collecting shellfish/fishing? individuals are using this tool a lot of fishing and bringing back to the cave and eat it tool that was shaped by people, fishing Early Art Diepkloof, South Africa (62kya) o Engraved ostrich egg shells APOLLO 11 Cave, Namibia (27.5 – 25.5kya) o Stone slabs independent innovation- rapid dynamic technological change Middle East & Europe Skuhl and Qafzeh, Israel (110 – 90kya) o Probably sympatric with Neanderthals Modern H.s. occupy Europe by 40kya? o Mladec/Predmosti, Czech Republic (35-25kya) o Cro-Magnon, France (27kya) Last of Neanderthals @ ~28kya o Rock of Gibraltar/Iberian Peninsula o [Apparently] using tools similar to contemporary humans Death and burial (Homo sapiens) Skhul (Israel) o 100kya? o Evidence for ochre and shell beads/tokens Sunghir I o W. Russia (24-32kya) o Red ochre pigment o ~3000! mammoth ivory beads Other early burials (28-30kya) o Only a few spectacular burials o Red ochre pigments o Generally, look like earlier Neanderthal burials but with some personal items/ornaments European Art fertility is the common motive for most of the art Chau vet caves (35-30kya?) famous art Europe better preserved- deeper and colder environment, sealed off and re-discovered o few images of people, images of canine(wolves)- common feature in Europe Peach Merle (25-16kya)- Horses Lascaux (>17kya)- Bison Domestication of wolves Associated with AMHS but not Neanderthals Goyet (Belgium) – 32kya Razboinichya Cave (Siberia) – 29kya o Skull morphology suggests [early stage] domestication o Wider braincase, shorter snout Předmostí (Czech Republic)- 27kya o 40% of 20 skulls are deliberately pierced - to release the spirit o One found with bone placed in mouth Domestic dogs are widespread by 12-14kya Why? Hunting, pack animals Chauvet cave (France)- tracks deep in cave- child and wolf, perhaps walking side by side(?) Like humans, canines rarely depicted in cave art(?) Like human teeth, canine teeth often worn as adornment Find prey quickly Asia and Southeast Asia modern human continues to expand Gap between 100-40kya in fossil record Possibly in China 65kya Possibly “Early” and “Late” waves of H. sapiens? sulawesi- the length of the ring finger can distinguish the male or female, hand prints infer the likely sex Indonesia and Australia Australia (Lake Mungo)- 50-40kya o Partial cremation Borneo (Niah Cave)- ~40kya The Americas Timing and route are disputed but probably 15-20kya o Bering land bridge? - o Coastal route? o Oceanic travel from Indonesia? “Clovis” culture: ~13kya- stone points o Abruptly appears all over N. America Topper (South Carolina): 16kya? Monte Verde (Chile): 18.5 – 14.5kya? - Living Native Americans are most closely related to East Asian populations Pacific Islands Most occupied only within the last 4kya Megafauna Extinctions Many in Late Pleistocene o North & South America o Northern Asia o Australia Often occur soon after human arrival Disease, rapid climatic changes are also likely factors Still turn up in permafrost: Wooly mammoth(39kya) Woolly rhino(39kya) Steppe bison(9kya) Cave lion(>10kya) The last of the ‘others’? Homo floresiensis, the “hobbit” ~100kya - 13kya? Flores, Indonesia relic island population of H. erectus? o ~3.3ft. tall, ~60lbs. o Proportionally large feet did not have Stone tools, not sure if they had fire(?) Overlapped with modern humans Went extinct w/volcanic eruption(?) only 13kya Island dwarfism- mammal over certain size, when they come on island they tend to get smaller turtle and lizard when they get to island they get bigger What is special about H. Sapiens Diet o High level of animal consumption Highly encephalized o High neuron density o Higher development of interconnectivity in regions o Developmental plasticity Technology (reliance on it) o Cumulative culture o Not spontaneous Extended ontogeny and lifespan o 14-18 years to reproductive maturity o Cooperative breeding Capacity for reasoning, empathy, and social sophistication o Difference in degree o Prosocial tendencies Use of symbolism/complex communication o language Brain Parts: Cerebrum (outer region/Neocortex) o Higher thought and function o Much more sophisticated Cerebellum o Not as advanced o Sexual impulses Spinal Cord o Sleep o Digestion o Breathing Brain tissue costs more energy than other body tissue Social Brain Hypothesis Social groups long term, fluid relationships is cognitively demanding Individuals more successful at navigating social constructs are better off Strong selective pressure for high cognitive sophistication Theory of Mind First order: the person next to me has a mind 2nd order: another person not here has a mind 3rd order: another person, knows someone who has a mind ***when saying have a mind, has thought and may know what you do, or more*** Deception and relative neocortex ratio Correlation between the size/thickness of neocortex and the rate of deception Dunbar Number Hypothesized upper limit to stable social networks for humans ~150 in most contexts Can be tested w/ o Military structure o Business organizations o Academic sub-disciplines Evidence for strong prosocial tendencies Psychological studies suggest o Make proactive altruistic choices with no rewards o Sensitive to cheating but also forgiving o Find helpful behavior pleasurable o Don't like to see others suffering o Proactively share experiences o Prefer cooperative work vs. solitary But prosocial behavior is influenced by in-group vs. out-group Large brain trade offs Potential difficulties in childbirth Exceptionally long developmental period o Dependency o Skill/knowledge acquis ions o Delayed reproduction Mothers and others Group of people who help (literally carry babies) Food sharing Caregivers not necessarily biologically related Socially engaged Infants induce hormonal changes Language Usually but not necessarily spoken Semantic (units with meaning) Phonemic (units can be recombined) Grammatical (rule based) Recursive (infinitely modifiable) Physiological differences o Shorter tongue o Shift in the larynx o Pharynx is larger in humans Hypothesis for language evolution o Linked to lateralized behaviors of brain structure, specialization of bodily functions (Calvin) Language in in left of brain, same as right handedness o Language replaced grooming as a tool for social bonding, groups became too big, grooming is simple for complex situation (Dunbar) o Began as gestural communication, gestures are more deliberate, where vocal noises can be reactionary (Corballis) o Retention/use of symbols and symbol hierarchies was the selective force for human brain evolution, combination and recombination of words (Deacon) When did language evolve Evidence for brain asymmetries in H. Habilis, H. erectus Evidence for lateralization in early Homo stone tools. FOXP2 gene (language production in humans) o Same allele is modern human and extinct Neanderthal Reconstructions of throat soft tissue morphology from hyoid suggest that afarensis is more apelike, where Neanderthal is more human like Human variation and Adaptation People have biological variations that are not race Humans all belong to one species o No human subspecies (all H. sapiens) More genetic diversity with populations rather than between No barrier to Gene flow Most variation is clinal, but clines are independent However, humans vary in biologically meaningful ways: ABO blood type 4 phenotypes 6 genotypes Could have a correlation to frequency and disease resistance Skin color --> UV radiation Polygenic trait Low latitudes, melanin is produced to protect from the destruction of pholate High latitudes, reduced melanin, to increase the production of vitamin D with limited sun exposure Diet: Lactose Tolerance As animals a weaned off of milk, the ability to produce lactase is lost Lactose tolerance is derived condition Disease Malaria Sickle Cell Anemia o Heterozygote advantage o See high heterozygote percentages in areas of malaria o Resistance to malaria w/ sick cell heterozygote Balanced polymorphism High Altitude Selection for alleles to account for stressors i.e. Tibet have high frequency of alleles to regulate oxygen (hypoxia) Temperature Bergmann's Rule (body and body size) o Volume increases more quickly than surface area o Larger bodied animals can retain heat more readily than smaller animals Allen's Rule (appendages) o Shape matters (more surface area, same volume) Soo.. o Colder environment animals have shorter wider bodies, to retain heat o Warm environments have longer, lean bodies to release heat
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