HIST 1010, Week 15 Lecture Notes
HIST 1010, Week 15 Lecture Notes Hist 1010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Peyton Robison on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Melissa Blair in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 December 1, 2015 Maturing Colonies in the 17 Century I. The English in Virginia a. Working and Living in Virginia b. From Indentured Servitude to Race-based Slavery II. The French in New France: Furs, Indians, and Priests III. African in the Caribbean: Sugar and Slavery Today’s Questions How did the different ways in which Europeans made money in each colony shape life in those colonies? The English in Virginia Mercantilism: A Definition o A system that seeks to increase the wealth of one country at the expense of others. In a th 17 century Atlantic world context, a system in which raw materials are extracted from the western hemisphere colonies to enrich European countries o This mercantilist system shapes everything else in the western colonies Jamestown, Virginia (founded in 1607) o In 1607,a group of English men come on behalf of the Virginia Company (not created by the government; it was a joint-stock company) A group of wealthy men pool their resources and invest in a colony in the hopes of making a profit o Original expedition expected to find silver and gold; that is what they are looking for and expect There were more jewelers than farmers in the 105 original men on the expedition Hey, there’s no gold and silver in Virginia All but 38 of the original 105 die over the winter of 1607-1608 They didn’t plant any crops o In the first few years, people just can’t stay alive There is a lot of water in this area, and there are huge problems with malaria and other water-inherited diseases that the English just have no immunity to Malnutrition; they don’t know how to grow native crops They received some help from Native Americans, but it was sporadic Also not coming up with any way to turn a profit for the Virginia company Because it isn’t going to be from gold and silver They eventually learn how to make money—from tobacco o The global price of tobacco went through the roof o Tobacco is native to Virginia and grows pretty well there, so this becomes the way the Virginia colony makes profit Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 The English Colony of Jamestown o Founded in 1607 on the coast of Virginia o Had great difficulty keeping people alive in early years, and did not turn a profit until 1618, when global tobacco prices went way up o Growing tobacco was until the 1670s, almost totally dependent on English indentured servants who worked for no pay for a set number of years Because there is a way to make profit, there is a population boom Most of the people who are coming are coming as indentured servants 4-7 years was the time a person was an indentured servant They were worked incredibly hard The land owners don’t spend any money on anything other than tobacco o Poorly housed, fed, and clothed This bad treatment is no secret in England, but yet people keep coming Why Indentured Servitude? o Push factors in England: civil war and desperately bad economy Things are pretty terrible in England in the middle of the century If you didn’t want to be drafted into the military for the civil war, becoming and indentured servant was an option Economy was especially bad for people who had been farmers There was simply not enough work for people who wanted to live in London Indentured servants: 80% were male, 20% were female Females could not get married without permission from master If you got pregnant, you had to work another year Women are encouraged to immigrate because the ratio was so skewed, but it stays skewed despite recruitment efforts o Had your passage paid by someone else, and worked for 5-7 years for no pay in order to pay passage off. Landowner got not only labor but also more land for bringing people over. o When term of indenture was completed, given your freedom with a year’s worth of corn and a new suit of clothes Nathaniel Bacon o Leads Bacon’s Rebellion All of these recently freed men are being pushed farther and farther west, where there was still-available land o Nathaniel Bacon demands that the government of Virginia be more responsive to their needs, namely fighting Native Americans on the frontier Governor does not want to do that and pick a fight with Native Americans (who outnumber them) on foreign territory, so he says no The group then marches to the capitol of Virginia, burn it down, and cause the governor to flee o Nathaniel Bacon then drops dead, and without his leadership, the movement dies Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 o The Rebellion is important because the political leaders realize the problem of having a bunch of English people who aren’t land-owning elites Factor that leads to transition Slaves cannot be freed When push factors go away in the 1670s, the Jamestown colony makes a shift from indentured servitude to slavery o There were already laws prior to the 1670s that made it clear how differently African slaves would be treated than English indentured servants Indentured servants work for no pay for a set of time before freedom Indentured servitude was not inheritable Enslavement was hugely different The Rise of Enslaved Labor in Virginia o In 1670s, number of indentured servants falls and number of enslaved people forced to come increases o 1662 law made condition of a child follow condition of the mother, setting the stage for slavery to be passed from mother to child A key in contrasting Virginian and Caribbean colonies Because of this law and the way the death rate stabilizes, right at the end of the 17 century, slavery becomes self-reproducing o This never happens in the Caribbean The French in New France: Furs, Indians, and Priests Experiences are very different than the English, mainly because of the way they are trying to make money o The French don’t have an equivalent to tobacco in Canada There’s no incentive for staple crop agriculture o They do, however, have furs Furs: Center of the New France Economy Highly prized in Europe This profit motive makes a big difference in French interactions with Native Americans o They can’t figure out where beavers live all by themselves Beavers don’t live in France They understand their reliance on Native Americans o Marked by a much higher degree of cooperation than in any other colony It all came down to making money They kept the Native Americans happy o They’d normally trade with the Native Americans, who would trap and skin the animals The French didn’t have to do the dirty work, essentially A lot of French fur trappers ended up marrying Native American women o A lot of intermarriage The children become important to trade because they serve as translators Living in New France Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 o Very few French men, and far fewer single French women, and so many men partnered with Native women—their children were critical to the fur trade as translators and guides o Missionaries came to convert, and had the most luck among female Indians such as Tekakwitha Catholic priests and nuns Priests would usually travel with the fur trappers The nuns tended to make convents where all the docks for the city were Some success in converting female Native Americans The presence of the nuns and of these convents provided a way out for women that were already in bad situations o Not with their home tribe, because maybe captured in inter- Native American wars The French understand how reliant they are economically on each other o They do not, however, see them as equals Africans in the Caribbean: Sugar and Slavery Caribbean Colonies in the 17 Century th It’s a political free-for-all in the 17 century o However, everyone is raising sugar cane The single-most valuable crop More valuable than tobacco and furs Consistencies on the sugar islands They copied sugar refining techniques from the Portuguese They also realized that sugar is completely reliant on slave labor o Africans were the majority on these islands by the end of the 17 century o The climate was so brutal that the Europeans did not move there Absentee landlord plantations o Those that are there work their labor force incredibly hard “death trap, a hole of death”—just a really brutal place Average life expectancy once you got there was 3 years Caribbean slavery was NEVER self-reproducing (see above) Enslaved people in the Caribbean were even worse off than the slaves in Virginia (clothing, feeding, etc.) o A result of the absentee landlord positions o They did not understand the full extent of what was going on But their slaves kept dying and they had to buy more, so they definitely knew how fast everyone was dying Life in the Caribbean Colonies o Small European population; African-majority by end of 17 century, and most sugar plantation landowners were absentee Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 o Death rates extraordinarily high among enslaved men and women; life expectancy three years and slave population never self-reproducing o Running away to maroon colonies, slowing down, and pretending not to speak European language all common forms of resistance among enslaved peoples there Maroon colonies were basically communities of run-away slaves in the mountains, away from the sugar plantations Most associated with Jamaica, but it happened everywhere in the Caribbean Even if you didn’t run away, there were little ways to exert control over your daily-work Slowing down Breaking tools o Effective on sugar islands where it was processed and there was more intricate machinery Pretending not to speak European language Really hard to sustain rebellion when the death rates were so high Knowledge could not be passed on, so it was hard to know if you could really get away with resisting December 3, 2015 Seventeenth Century Europe I. Absolutism a. France b. The Emergence of the Russian Empire II. The Power Balance Shifts North a. Economic Power of Northern Europe b. Intellectual Power: Scientific Breakthroughs and Political Theory Today’s Questions th What were some of the key developments in 17 century Europe, in terms of economics, politics, and scientific thought? How did those contribute to a fundamental shift in power within Europe from south to north? Absolutism Absolute Monarchy: A Definition o An absolute monarchy is one in which there are no formal checks on the power of the king or queen—all power flows from them, and they have the final word on absolutely everything o Different than the divine right of kings, which stated that God had ordained a king or queen to rule, but did not necessarily mean he or she did so as an absolutist. England believed in the divine right of kings but was not an absolute monarchy A counter-example of absolute monarchies Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 England is not an absolute monarchy o They actually try to be absolute monarchs, but Parliament is so well established that it actually pisses people off A push for Civil War o Had to do with religious stuff AND whether or not England would become an absolute monarchy or not Absolute monarchy didn’t have to be the way everything was o An absolute monarchy is just a “how does the government work” kind of thing o Divine right of kings is how you think about kingship French Absolutism o France was the example that everyone who wanted to start an absolute monarchy looked to o The estates general is dissolved, and without legislative bodies meeting in France, there’s no check for the king o Palace of Versailles, built by Louis XIV (1661-1678) Clearly designed to communicate to anyone who approaches it the power of the person that lives there While it is the royal family’s residence, it is also the seat of the government because the king is the government French Absolutism o No meetings of Estates-General or other political body drawn from across society; entire government is king and his inner circle o Nobles required to be in attendance at Versailles most of the year, but can only requests money, they cannot complain They do a couple of things while there They try to gain audiences with the king (asking for money) But mostly they’re just there because the king wants them there and they have to He wants to keep an eye on his nobility to maintain power They can’t try to gain their own power if they are always under his roof o Peasants have very little interaction with the government—no direct involvement in their lives, but also no help when things are bad Most of these people are rural Government had little effect on their everyday life, but the government was very unaware of everything o The king gives out money for public works, etc. but he makes it clear that the money is from the king; “of the king,” “because of the king” The Emergence of the Russian Empire th th o Russian Empire grew exponentially over the course of the 16 and 17 century o The annexation of Siberia was a really critical part in enabling the Russian Empire to develop the absolutist style that it does Gave access to lots of furry creatures (very valuable) Fur trade becomes a major source of income for the czars Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 Russian Absolutism o Tsars ruled without any sort of formal check on their power o Unlike in France, nobles remained in their home regions and were the representatives of the tsars in the regions. So long as they were loyal to the tsar, they had no checks on their own, local power This is partially out of necessity; Russia is such a huge country that it’d be impossible to keep the rest of Russia out of control Russia is also incredibly diverse in language, culture, etc. Nobles rule as sort of “mini absolutists” in their territory with no checks o Much more direct involvement by the government in peasants’ lives. In 1649, they were formally made serfs, meaning they were tied to the land and their noble controlled almost every aspect of their lives For ordinary people, the dispersion of nobles throughout the country makes a huge difference Becoming a serf means you are tied to the land You have virtually no freedom This system lasts for a very long time France and Russia are examples of how absolutism doesn’t look exactly the same everywhere you go The Power Balance Shifts North Northern Europe is England, France, and the Netherlands; we’re not talking about Germany today Europe’s Economic Center Shifts North o Spanish colonies are becoming less successful as mines begin to be exhausted, while British and French colonies are becoming more profitable Spain had not made the thorough shift to staple crop agriculture; they invested in gold and silver extraction and it was just running out The Thirty Years War is a big factor, also Brutal war o Hand guns and cannons; a lot of people die Cripples central Europe for a long time and the population shrinks dramatically o The Thirty Years’ War (1618-11648) costs Spain its Dutch possessions and destroys the economy and population of central Europe o After the Thirty Years’ War, English and Dutch in particular develop new economic methods that help their economies grow rapidly The Dutch are innovating in a couple of ways Developing a very early stock exchange, enabling people to make money in a new way that didn’t exist before The main thing they’re doing is muscling the Portuguese out of the ocean-trade leadership position Peyton Robison HIST 1010 Fall 2015 Dr. Melissa Blair Week 15 o Everything is taxed in Amsterdam before it is sold in the rest of Europe o Asian imports were hugely profitable o They never set up residential colonies like the English do Economy is absolutely booming at the expense of the Portuguese o The English are refining the Mercantilist System by passing a series of laws that give them a monopoly on trade of raw materials Especially if you’re in British North America and you want to buy finished goods, it is illegal for you to buy it from anywhere other than England They do this to bypass the Dutch The Enlightenment o Scientific Revolutionaries: Galileo and Newton A key part of what’s going on the 16 and 17 century o Newton develops the theory of gravity Two main points from his story: You can observe from your senses the rules that govern the functioning of the world without relying on religion on superstition There are universal or natural laws that govern these things and that apply in all places o These natural laws govern how the physical world works o In political theory and philosophy, people are also trying to figure out how things work and how they should operate Political Theory of the Enlightenment o John Locke key political theorist. Takes notion of natural laws from the scientific realm and applies it to politics Belief that people are born as a blank slate, with the capacity to be educated and make rational decisions The big overall theme of the Enlightenment is opening up knowledge o Writes that all people have natural rights to life, liberty, and property and also that governments are contracts between the people and the governed, which the people have the right to terminate if the government isn’t living up to its end of the contract The concept of the contracts gets developed more by Rousseau later on Terms and Wrap-Up Absolute monarchy—Thirty Years’ War—natural laws What were some of the key developments in 17 century Europe, in terms of economics, politics, and scientific thought? How did those contribute to a fundamental shift in power within Europe from south to north?