last week of notes!
last week of notes! GEOG 103 001
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eliza Lynch on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 103 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Larianne Collins (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Geography in Geography at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
12115 Economic Geoqraphv Primary Sector agriculture mining Secondary Sector industrial activity Tertiary Sector services Quaternary Sector high end services Industry manufacturing goods in a factory Culture hearth England1750s Industrial revolution a series of improvements in industrial technology that transformed the process of manufacturing goods really did change culture Industries impacted domino effect 0 Coal plentiful but heavy so factories clustered near coalfields 0 Iron 1st industry to benefit from steam engine enabled the factories to have constantly heated water rather than having a fire going all the time 0 Transportation inventions critical in diffusing IR canals railways Diffusion of IR Textiles woven fabric 1st mills Improved process of spinning yarn influenced chemical industry for bleaching amp dying Food processing industry derived from chemical industry urban factory workers need food Requiring preserving methods pickling fermenting drying Led to innovations in glass bottle canning tin can use Diffusion amp Distribution of Industry Less than 1 of land is devoted to industry Clustered in 4 main regions eastern north America northwestern Europe eastern Europe east Asia Hearth of England because that was where all the people were at the time amp there were lots of natural resources there Locating a Factory situation factors location factors related to transportation of materials into amp from a factory relative location Where are the people amp where are the raw materials Site factors location factors related to cost of factors of production inside the plant land labor capital absolute location Both site and situation factors change through time Variable factors time amp space Location DOES matter 1 Bulk Reducing Industries an industry in which the final product weighs less than its inputs before production proximity to materials 0 Ex steel production iron ore and coal canningfreezing food 2 Bulk Gaining Industries an industry that gains volume or weight during production proximity to marketspeople 0 Ex soda bottlers fabricated metals 0 Singlemarket manufacturers auto parts 0 Justin time delivery no storage carscomputers o Reduces perishability Transportation Modes farther something is transported lower cost per mile because people must be paid to loadunload costs rise each time inputs or products are transferred from 1 mode to another break of bulk point a location where transfer among transportation modes is possible seaportsairports multiple modes of transportation Long Beach California Charleston ports etc every time the product changes hands the price goes up 1 labor labor intensive industry one in which labor cost is a high percent of expense fordist assembly line vs post fordist teams doing it all at once 2 capital ability to borrow money 3 land Industry expansions amp Shifts MDCS factories relocate from central cities to rural Relocation from traditional cluster regions to BRle Brazil Russia India China Brazil amp Russia lots of the planets land full of raw materials India amp China more market and populationlabor force New international division of labor transfer of some types ofjobs especially those requiring less skilled workers from MDCs to LDCs outsourcing decision by corporation to turn over much of the responsibility for production to independent suppliers Maquiladoras factories built by US companies in Mexico near US border to take advantage of much lower labor costs in Mexico low cost low rent cheap labor right to work laws requires factory to maintain a so called open shop and prohibits a closed shop industrial competition in MDCs occurs among TRADING BLOCs not individual countries NAFTAEUOPEC Trading among trading blocs w teamlike efforts Services service activity that fulfills a human want or need and returns money to those who provide it MDCs have at least 75 of all their workforce involved in services LDCs is 50 or less quot Types of Services Consumer business amp public Public service industry started here services from the gov Business financial profession etc Consumer biggest things that we buy and need retail amp wholesale health services leisure amp hospitality services education service A few things may fall under more than one category Large size high density social heterogeneity urbanization process by which the population of urban settlement grows more services where there s more people Why are Consumer Services Distributed in a Regular Pattern Central Place a market center for the exchange of goods amp services by people attracted from the surrounding area Central Place Theory Settlements serve as centers of market areas for services larger settlements are fewer and farther between than farther settlements amp provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther Market area the area surrounding a service from which customers are attracted Range maximum distance people are willing to travel to use a service radius Threshold minimum of people needed to support the service Together they determine whether a goodservice can be profitable in a particular location Situation really only one that matters for services Situated near market Best location minimizes distance to services for largest number of people Why do competitors clusters Competition drives up sales 12315 GEOG103 Site selection factors Capital lnnova ons Markettransportation Land Raw materials Labor Power The case of FedEx Site vs situation Memphis International Airport runways Latin American headquarters located in Miami FL COURSE SUMMARY Geography is the study of the earth as the home of humans Geography has changed formed a lot not grandfathers geog What differentiates geography is its spatial perspective We look for patterns across space We ask WHY things are where they are Main concepts location place region spatial interaction humanenvironment interaction scale local regional national global Future of oeooraphv effects of climate change even human development new agricultural practices death of the state system amp rise of the urban system growth of regional economic cooperation effects of further globalization global sustainable development FINAL Thursday December 10 1230 PM in the same room Covers development urban geography agriculturefood industry amp services 50 questions 2 points each 40 multiple choice 7 true false 3 short answers fill out course evaluations 5 points on the exam if 90 of class does it