Week14notes.pdf FW 104
Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
v ESA Case Studies on Mega Fauna v What good are predators? Ø Aesthetics Ø Biodiversity Ø Overabundant species Ø Disease control v Grizzly Populations in GYA Ø Listed as threatened in 1975 Ø Only 125 bears left Ø Recovery goals § 48 reproducing females, <9% mortality Ø Goals met, delisted in 2007 Ø First eat elk calves/carcasses, trout, army cutworm moths, and whitebark pine seeds Ø Relisted in 2009, upheld in 2011 § Pine seeds food source becomes rare § Need more than 500 bears § <6.7% mortality rates § food source threats must be addressed Ø bears soon to be delisted regardless of the nuts that are falling Ø now have >700 bears § super k selected species as a whole Ø what are the issues concerning other bears? § Species genetic exchange potential Ø Endangered status “warranted but precluded” in 3 populations: Cabibet – Yaak, Selkirks, Selway-Bitterroot § In Selway if reintroduced will be non-essential Ø Blister rust and whitebark pin nuts recovery? § Climate change issues § Was the reason for the bears being relisted v Gray Wolf Ø Historic distribution § World: much of n. hemisphere § Most of U.S. § Extirpated from lower 48 § Listed under ESA in 1970s § Hunting and trapping wiped out the wolves-not cryptic § Drama involved with the status of the gray wolf § Natural colonization from Canada and Minnesota into Michigan and wolves moving down from Canada into MT and WA Ø Rocky Mnt. Gray Wolf Reintroduction § Yellowstone, Idaho § 1995 § experimental/non-essential • more flexibility for adjustment but treated like threatened • could remove/kill problem wolves § Recovery: Breeding pair and acceptable management plans in each state § Reintroduction was greatly successful • Cons of Reintroduction ♦ Hunters: wolves take game ♦ Ranchers: wolves take livestock ♦ Public: wolves kill people Ø Only 1 fatal attack in NA since 1900 ♦ Environmental groups wanted the wolves to trickle in naturally • Pros of Reintroduction ♦ Natural colonization may never happen ♦ Laws don’t protect, people do ♦ Vital part of ecosystem ♦ Make Yellowstone more attractive § In Montana and Idaho, wolves are now classified as big game/trophy species v Mexican wolf Ø Status: endangered sub-population (2015) Ø Illegal hunting and inbreeding Ø Captive animals reintroduced Ø ~58 in wild in 2011 Ø now 109 & breeding (2014) Ø recovery goals § moving benchmarks? v 1989, CO Park and Wildlife Commission went on record as opposing reintroduction to CO v naturally colonize from south (endangered Mexican wolf or from north (gray wolf) Ø 2004, one found dead in 170 Ø 2007 video near Walden, CO Ø 2012 wolf killed by poison Meeker, CO Ø 2015 wolf shot in Kremmling, CO v Florida Panther Ø 1970s: reduced to 5% of historical range and only 12-20 left in wild Ø endangered Ø inbreeding depression Ø surviving population too inbred for captive breeding program § sterile, heart defects, kinked tail, etc Ø lack of habitat/prey Ø road kill Ø worst year ever (2015) Ø Recovery plan § 1994: 6 females from texas released • fixed genetics § now at 160 adults (2014) § goal: 3 viable population of 240 individuals, natural gene flow between them § metapopulation- different levels of exchange between sub populations that allow genetic exchange § 36000 sq miles of habitat § need corridors between lands of conservation Ø monitoring § radio collar mark and resight, movement § intra specific aggression documented § trail cameras v Jaguars Ø Hunted/poached to extermination in US § NM,AZ,CA, and TX § Endangered in US in 1997 § Critical habitat just designated § Threats- poaching § Habitat loss § Distrupted corridors v Summary of ESA top predators Ø Anti predator sentiments up to 1970s had devastating effects on predator populations Ø National Parks not enough Ø Captive breeding, reintroduction, translocations Ø Controversy/fights with every step Ø Land and human participation critical v Colorado Plains Fishes Conservation v The Great Plains Ø Largest eco-region in North America Ø Fertile soil Ø Hub of US Agriculture v CO Plains Fishes Ø Northern plains killifish Ø Redbelly dace Ø Plains minnow Ø Orangethroat darter Ø Organespotted sunfish v Scary because they are very tough fish but they are dying off v Conservation Issues Ø Groundwater pumping § Ogallala aquifer § Water is pumped for agriculture § Water table is lowering – CO will be more important Ø Reservoir construction § Sources of predatory and competitive non-natives § Alters river habitat upstream and downstream • Physical (sediment movement) and temperature Ø Barriers to movement Ø Endemism – and organism that is native to or only exists in a certain area or region § Special adaptations § Specific habitat to thrive § Long nose gar – breathe air adapted to low oxygen environment § Orangethroat Darter – really pretty, colorful tiny fish § Bighorn sheep, bison, panther Ø Pelagic Spawning § Eggs become byounant and float downstream to where they become adults and swim back upstream to spawn again Ø Fish need to move § Spawning, safe heaven environment, feeding habitats § Reservoirs, grade control structure, irrigation diversions (ditches), culverts (big tube through a stream) speed water velocity up through the tube v Most fishes are small <6 inches as adults-limits jumping and swimming ability v Even small barriers (2-4 inches) can block migrations and upstream colonization v To help… Ø Recharge aquifers § Thousands of years Ø Remove barriers to movement § Some areas but not applicable everywhere and can be expensive Ø Get fish around the barriers § Build fish passage structures Ø Fish passage structures § Pool and weir § Vertical slot § Fish elevators § Rock ramp fishway • Improving rock ramp fishways ♦ Sloped channel, can be built without vertical drops and high velocity areas • Higher gradient=higher velocity v PIT tags v Passive integrated transponder tag Ø Each has a unique code Ø Radio frequency identification Ø Widely used in many animals v Species Ø Arkansas darter § Threatened § Poor swimmer § No gas bladder § No darter species has ever been PIT tagged Ø Stonecat § Special concern § Moderate swimmer § Clean streams Ø Flathead chub § Species of special concern § Excellent swimmer
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