New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Mikaela Maldonado

Week14notes.pdf FW 104

Mikaela Maldonado
GPA 4.0

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)
Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2)

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mikaela Maldonado on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to FW 104 at Colorado State University taught by Nicole K M Vieira; Ann L Randall ; Tyler Ryde Swarr in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Conservation (GT-SC2) in Animal Science and Zoology at Colorado State University.

Similar to FW 104 at CSU

Popular in Animal Science and Zoology


Reviews for Week14notes.pdf


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 12/03/15
v ESA Case Studies on Mega Fauna v What good are predators? Ø Aesthetics Ø Biodiversity Ø Overabundant species Ø Disease control v Grizzly Populations in GYA Ø Listed as threatened in 1975 Ø Only 125 bears left Ø Recovery goals § 48 reproducing females, <9% mortality Ø Goals met, delisted in 2007 Ø First eat elk calves/carcasses, trout, army cutworm moths, and whitebark pine seeds Ø Relisted in 2009, upheld in 2011 § Pine seeds food source becomes rare § Need more than 500 bears § <6.7% mortality rates § food source threats must be addressed Ø bears soon to be delisted regardless of the nuts that are falling Ø now have >700 bears § super k selected species as a whole Ø what are the issues concerning other bears? § Species genetic exchange potential Ø Endangered status “warranted but precluded” in 3 populations: Cabibet – Yaak, Selkirks, Selway-Bitterroot § In Selway if reintroduced will be non-essential Ø Blister rust and whitebark pin nuts recovery? § Climate change issues § Was the reason for the bears being relisted v Gray Wolf Ø Historic distribution § World: much of n. hemisphere § Most of U.S. § Extirpated from lower 48 § Listed under ESA in 1970s § Hunting and trapping wiped out the wolves-not cryptic § Drama involved with the status of the gray wolf § Natural colonization from Canada and Minnesota into Michigan and wolves moving down from Canada into MT and WA Ø Rocky Mnt. Gray Wolf Reintroduction § Yellowstone, Idaho § 1995 § experimental/non-essential • more flexibility for adjustment but treated like threatened • could remove/kill problem wolves § Recovery: Breeding pair and acceptable management plans in each state § Reintroduction was greatly successful • Cons of Reintroduction ♦ Hunters: wolves take game ♦ Ranchers: wolves take livestock ♦ Public: wolves kill people Ø Only 1 fatal attack in NA since 1900 ♦ Environmental groups wanted the wolves to trickle in naturally • Pros of Reintroduction ♦ Natural colonization may never happen ♦ Laws don’t protect, people do ♦ Vital part of ecosystem ♦ Make Yellowstone more attractive § In Montana and Idaho, wolves are now classified as big game/trophy species v Mexican wolf Ø Status: endangered sub-population (2015) Ø Illegal hunting and inbreeding Ø Captive animals reintroduced Ø ~58 in wild in 2011 Ø now 109 & breeding (2014) Ø recovery goals § moving benchmarks? v 1989, CO Park and Wildlife Commission went on record as opposing reintroduction to CO v naturally colonize from south (endangered Mexican wolf or from north (gray wolf) Ø 2004, one found dead in 170 Ø 2007 video near Walden, CO Ø 2012 wolf killed by poison Meeker, CO Ø 2015 wolf shot in Kremmling, CO v Florida Panther Ø 1970s: reduced to 5% of historical range and only 12-20 left in wild Ø endangered Ø inbreeding depression Ø surviving population too inbred for captive breeding program § sterile, heart defects, kinked tail, etc Ø lack of habitat/prey Ø road kill Ø worst year ever (2015) Ø Recovery plan § 1994: 6 females from texas released • fixed genetics § now at 160 adults (2014) § goal: 3 viable population of 240 individuals, natural gene flow between them § metapopulation- different levels of exchange between sub populations that allow genetic exchange § 36000 sq miles of habitat § need corridors between lands of conservation Ø monitoring § radio collar mark and resight, movement § intra specific aggression documented § trail cameras v Jaguars Ø Hunted/poached to extermination in US § NM,AZ,CA, and TX § Endangered in US in 1997 § Critical habitat just designated § Threats- poaching § Habitat loss § Distrupted corridors v Summary of ESA top predators Ø Anti predator sentiments up to 1970s had devastating effects on predator populations Ø National Parks not enough Ø Captive breeding, reintroduction, translocations Ø Controversy/fights with every step Ø Land and human participation critical v Colorado Plains Fishes Conservation v The Great Plains Ø Largest eco-region in North America Ø Fertile soil Ø Hub of US Agriculture v CO Plains Fishes Ø Northern plains killifish Ø Redbelly dace Ø Plains minnow Ø Orangethroat darter Ø Organespotted sunfish v Scary because they are very tough fish but they are dying off v Conservation Issues Ø Groundwater pumping § Ogallala aquifer § Water is pumped for agriculture § Water table is lowering – CO will be more important Ø Reservoir construction § Sources of predatory and competitive non-natives § Alters river habitat upstream and downstream • Physical (sediment movement) and temperature Ø Barriers to movement Ø Endemism – and organism that is native to or only exists in a certain area or region § Special adaptations § Specific habitat to thrive § Long nose gar – breathe air adapted to low oxygen environment § Orangethroat Darter – really pretty, colorful tiny fish § Bighorn sheep, bison, panther Ø Pelagic Spawning § Eggs become byounant and float downstream to where they become adults and swim back upstream to spawn again Ø Fish need to move § Spawning, safe heaven environment, feeding habitats § Reservoirs, grade control structure, irrigation diversions (ditches), culverts (big tube through a stream) speed water velocity up through the tube v Most fishes are small <6 inches as adults-limits jumping and swimming ability v Even small barriers (2-4 inches) can block migrations and upstream colonization v To help… Ø Recharge aquifers § Thousands of years Ø Remove barriers to movement § Some areas but not applicable everywhere and can be expensive Ø Get fish around the barriers § Build fish passage structures Ø Fish passage structures § Pool and weir § Vertical slot § Fish elevators § Rock ramp fishway • Improving rock ramp fishways ♦ Sloped channel, can be built without vertical drops and high velocity areas • Higher gradient=higher velocity v PIT tags v Passive integrated transponder tag Ø Each has a unique code Ø Radio frequency identification Ø Widely used in many animals v Species Ø Arkansas darter § Threatened § Poor swimmer § No gas bladder § No darter species has ever been PIT tagged Ø Stonecat § Special concern § Moderate swimmer § Clean streams Ø Flathead chub § Species of special concern § Excellent swimmer


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.