Moral and Psychosocial Development
Moral and Psychosocial Development EDU 2100
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Thomas nelson on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to EDU 2100 at High Point University taught by Dr. Sarah Vess in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Nature of the Learner in Education and Teacher Studies at High Point University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
Thomas Nelson 0 All students respond to reinforcers 0 Effectiveness of specific rewards and deterrents of undesirable behavior can be in uenced by students individual differences 0 Interests 0 Needs 0 Values 0 Goals 0 Differences in perception of what is punishment 0 History of previous reinforcers and punishment 0 Special needs students may respond differently 0 Teacher biases and assumptions about students 0 Kounin Approach 0 Kounin studied practices of teachers who could increase engagement of learners vs teachers who struggle to gain and maintain students attention 0 Effective learning environments planned in advance amp proactive better than reactive O 4 behaviors from these observations that help teachers to be effective practitioners I Withitness Teacher knows what is going on in classroom at all times 39 Overlapping time Teacher monitors and supervises at least 2 activities at one I Maintaining smoothness and momentum gt Smoothness Teacher transitions students between activities or locations without sudden breaks Don t be stimulus bound responding to every little stimulus which takes time away from learning Thrust Suddenly interrupting a child s activity without preparing the child for the interruption Dangle Involved in an activity stops it for a brief time to do something else then returns to the initial activity Truncation Same as dangle but teacher never returns to original activity Momentum Maintaining an appropriate pace during learning activities Overdwelling Too much time spent dealing with materials of activity instead of activity or focusing on an issue for a longer time than necessary Maintaining group focus gt Group Alerting Teacher asks questions to whole class then chooses one student randomly gt Accountability 0 Assertive Discipline Approach 0 Students have a right to learn and a right to have classroom free from behavior problems 0 4 basic competencies Observable classroom rules that clarify behaviors vital for success in classroom Consistently respond to appropriate behaviors gt catch them succeeding and being good Respond without bias when students disrupt their own learning and learning of others Work with families and administrators to gain support help and expertise when needed 0 3 response styles 0 Nonassertive Response Style Passive approach Teacher doesn t have clear expectations Inconsistent with responding to behavior Hostile Response Style Teacher interested in controlling students instead of helping them learn strategies to regulate their own behavior Authoritarian and in exible Assertive Response Style Students are aware of teacher s expectations for behavior Students understand consequences Teacher viewed as secure and fair Positive Recognition Students gain teacher s attention by behaving appropriately Teacher should spend more time giving positive comments than negative comments at least a 41 ratio Research shows teacher praise increases student achievement 0 Types of development 0 Moral Development Mechanism by which children and adolescents learn different between right and wrong Children and adolescents learn difference between right and wrong Moral Judgment Children s conceptions of rules and respect that children acquire for these rules 0 Personal Development Refers to way young people interact with their environment and learning experiences that result specifically as in uenced by teachers parents and peers O Psychosocial Development Process by which a person s sense of self emerges as the result of interactions between his or her social and personal side I Piaget s Theory 0 Stage 1 Moral Realism 27 years old 0 Stage 2 Mutuality 711 years old 0 Stage 3 Autonomy 1115 years old 0 Piaget was concerned with intentionality 0 Kohlberg s Theory 0 Expanded Piaget s Theory into 6 stages I Level 1 Preconventional Moral Reasoning gt Stage 1 PunishmentObedience Orientation gt Stage 2 Personal Reward Orientation I Level 2 Conventional Moral Reasoning gt Stage 3 Good Person Orientation gt Stage 4 LawandOrder Orientation I Level 3 Postconventional Moral Reasoning gt Stage 5 SocialContract Orientation gt Stage 6 UniversalEthicalPrinciple Orientation O Moral dilemmas Situations in which a choice must be made between two desirable or two undesirable alternatives where no choice is either absolutely right or wrong 0 Strengths I Valuable insights into nature and development of children s and adolescents moral reasoning I Supported by reasoning 0 Limitations I Subjective scoring on moral dilemma tests I Underestimates young children s moral reasoning ability I Moral development seems to follow trends rather than progressing systematically through stages I Gender bias 0 Studies have shown that 3 strategies are positively correlated with change in moral reasoning 0 Active learning 0 Re ection O TeacherStudent Interaction 0 Negative interactions with other students has a negative impact on moral reasoning no change to positive direction 0 Students low in moral judgment are more likely to behave poorly in school gt teachers should try to stimulate moral growth 0 Promoting moral development 0 00000 OO O Moral education programs crossaged groups within Character education an instructional approach Values clarification Cognitive moral education Service learning Provide forms of student selfgovernment safe environment for learning and sharing Structure learning environment to model democratic values Encourage selfdiscipline through cooperative interactions with others in classroom Encourage students to think in complex ways about moral issues 0 Erikson s Psychosocial Theory 0 Mainly interested in how people develop their ego identity Sense of who they really are Person s identity is formed as the result of a series of developmental crises that occur naturally within the social environment at different stages of life While attempting to master the challenges that each of these crises pose people either grow toward greater selfactualization mastery unity of personality accuracy of perception or regress toward a more infantile resolution Each crisis represents a chance for someone to develop another aspect of identity in a healthy or an unhealthy way 8 Stages I Infancy Basic Needs Trust vs Mistrust I Toddlerhood SelfControl Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt I Early Childhood Purpose Initiative vs Guilt I School Age Productivity Industry vs Inferiority I Adolescence SelfDiscovery Identity vs Confusion I Young Adulthood Sharing Intimacy vs Isolation I Adulthood Parenting Generativity vs Stagnation I Old Age SelfAcceptance Integrity vs Despair 0 Social Cognitive Learning Theory 0 O 0 Theory of learning that emphasizes cognitive components of social learning Social Learning Students learn by observing others behaviors Model Individual who is imitated or whose behavior others learn from 0 Inhibition VS Disinhibition o Bobo D011 Experiment B andura
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