Week 13 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life
Week 13 Lecture Notes- BIO 106 Ocean Life BIO 106 - M001
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Hill on Thursday December 3, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 106 - M001 at Syracuse University taught by S. Parks in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Ocean Life in Biology at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/03/15
11/30/15 Overharvesting History of Fishing Fishing dates back at least 40,000 years Ancient Egyptians and Greeks had sophisticated fishing methods Importance of fish 1% of total food supply for humans 50% currently from aquaculture about 18% of all animal protein consumed by humans Cod and mackerel fishery have long history in US (Massachusetts) What is a fishery? Fishery: the commercial practice of catching, processing, and selling fish or seafood products Fish Stock: Populations or subpopulations of a particular fish species Fisheries are big business $5.4 billion in fish and invertebrate landings in 2014 in the U.S. 87% of landings were fin fish (but only 44% of value) Top most profitable fish species (invertebrates) 4. Salmon $616 million 6. Pollock $410 million 7. Flatfish $290 million 10. Cod $163 million Public perception and marketing what is in a name? We changed the name of certain fishes so they sound more appealing to consumers. Squid calamari Dolphinfish mahimahi Patagonian toothfish Chilean sea bass Slimehead Orange roughy Fishing rights in the ocean Each country has an Economic Exclusion Zone (200 nm from shore) They can allow or exclude other countries from fishing in their zone Disputed fishing areas can lead to serious conflicts between countries (when the zones overlap) USACanada fishing controversy on East Cost of United States Disputed waters off Japan and Korea Lobster Wars Lobster is extremely valuable; the price has been going up There is a Canadian island less than 15 miles off the shore of Maine. This creates controversy and violence This is a very productive area for lobster Dispute over fishing rights It can get pretty violent. In 2014, there was a Chinese fishing vessel that rammed a Vietnamese fisheries regulatory vessel. There is controversy over who has claim to certain islands What do we fish for? Herrings, Sardines, Anchovies, Menhadens, Cods, Pollock, Haddock, Salmon, Mackerels, Tunas, Flatfishes (flounders, halibuts, soles, etc), hakes and whitings. Modern Fishing Methods A) Gill nets tuna, cod, hake, Pollock B) Purse seine sardines, herring, salmon C) Longline Tuna (surface), halibut (bottom) D) Trawls Cod, Pollock, haddock, flatfish Fisheries Regulation Optimal Yields vs. Overfishing All marine species are renewable resources Stock Size and reproductive capacity of each species determines sustainable harvest level if unregulated, market forces will lead to overfishing Overfishing Worldwide problem We are catching more fish that the system can naturally replenish there were over 6x as many fish in the ocean in 1900 than in 2000 Newfoundland and Cod Large scale cod fishing began in late 1400s In the 1600s Cod were “so thick by the shore that we hardly have been able to row a boat through them” The cod fishery Supertrawlers in 1951 Caught as much fish in 15 years as the previous 100 years Stock collapsed in 1992 Fishing moratorium in 1993 Little recovery until very recently Cod is basically gone from the North Atlantic Climate and fisheries Anchovies were the major fishery in Peru fisheries Over 10.2 million tons of anchovies in 1971 After overfishing during an El Nino season, the population collapsed Major economic impact on the country’s economy Study: Fish dieoff linked to ocean warming It’s commonly accepted that fish off the New England coastline are on the move, headed north or offshore to deeper waters to find relief from a warming ocean. Successful Fisheries Maine banned taking of egg bearing female lobsters in 1872 Series of regulations to conserve lobster population “VNotch” system minimum size maximum size trap and tag limits The Shifting Baseline Syndrome “… each generation of fisheries scientists accepts as a baseline the stock size and species composition that occurred at the beginning of their careers and uses this to evaluate changes.” Declining body size of fish stocks How big fish are is important Over time, the size of fish has declined drastically Reversing Overfishing Stopping fishing can potentially reverse population declines Consumers can be selective about choices of fish they eat Monterey Bay Aquarium Seafood Watch Best choices: seafood in this category is abundant, wellmanaged and caught or farmed in environmentally friendly ways. Good Alternatives: these items are an option, but there are concerns with how they’re caught or farmed or with the health of their habitat due to other human impacts. Avoid: take a pass on these items for now. They are caught or farmed in ways that harm other marine life or the environment. The Super Green List: a list of wild and farmed seafood that’s healthy for people and the oceans. Abundant, wellmanaged: Striped bass, bluefish, catfish, clams, mussels, oysters, cod, Mahi Mahi, prawns, salmon, scallops, seaweed, shrimp, swordfish, tilapia, trout, tuna Bycatch, habitat damage, overfishing, pollution: Atlantic cod, blue and king crab, halibut, lobster, monkfish, wild scallops, wild shrimp, snapper, squid, swordfish, tuna, Atlantic Rock Crab, canned crab, Atlantic halibut, sharks, etc. Fish farming Mari culture Today, half of the seafood eaten in the U.S. is farmed Environmental impact of fish farming varies Factors: Species farmed Farming method Location Types of Mariculture open mariculture: farming takes place under “natural” conditions Intensive mariculture: high growth by controlling environment Seeding: eggs hatched in captivity, fry released to ocean, later recaptured after grow to maturity Potential challenged with fish farming Wild fish as a food source Pollution and disease Fish sewage contains uneaten food, waste products, disease, and pathogens New diseases and parasites introduced by seed stock Incubation of local diseases caused by a high concentration of fish Escapes (of non native species; compete with native fish for food and habitat) Habitat damage Herbicides (control algae growth on netpens) Management Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) drugs introduction of nonnative species fish meal and fish oil made from oily fish, such as anchovies and mackerel What is Bycatch? the unintended capture or entanglement of species in fishing gear Nontarget species Sea turtles Seabirds Marine mammals sharks, rays, and skates Finfish Magnitude of the problem Finfish about 7.3 million tons of fish per year Sharks, rays, skates about 90 million in global fisheries Marine mammals about 650,000 per year in global fisheries Loggerhead turtles about 200,000 per year in global pelagic longline fisheries Seabirds More than 100,000 albatrosses in longlines Modification of habitat trawling major threat to bottom habitats The rollers scrape away anything on the sea floor This is a problem for organisms who live on or under the sediment It ruins the habitat Whale entanglement Large whales can get wrapped in lines from fishing gear Can lead to serious injury and death; the ropes cut into them Solutions for the future? Marine Protected Areas and TimeArea restrictions Changes to fishing practices or gear bycatch quotas market demand return to traditional sea tenure in small scale fisheries Whaling and its history Partially historical, partially current Heyday of whaling is the 1800s Moby Dick is a famous book about whales Whale wars we won, the Japanese cannot whale but they are going to resume whaling There is a long history. Whales are very valuable Goes back to the year 1000 Earliest Record of aboriginal whaling Archaeological evidence of whaling etched in walrus ivory from 2,000year old sites on St. Lawrence Island, Alaska Whales saved by petroleum Commercial exploitation of right whales started in the 12 century Primary products were: Oil (from blubber) Candles (from spermaceti) Baleen Whaling lasted until the advent of the petroleum industry in 1859 Modern Commercial Whaling Modern whaling started in 1904 in Antarctica Invention of grenade harpoon and use of powered vessels from 1864 Primary products were oil for margarine and (much later) meat Sequential overharvest As larger (blue whales) and easily captured species (humpbacks) became rare, whalers shifted their efforts to smaller species Blue whale abundance Preharvest: 200,000 1998: about 2,300 Whaling legal regulation A short history 1925 first concern regarding whaling by League of Nations 1937 International Agreement for the Regulation of Whaling (primarily to protect blue and right whales) 1946 International convention for the regulation of whaling The end of whaling? In 1986, IWC agreed to a moratorium on commercial whaling All countries, except Norway, Iceland and Japan have ended whaling practices Loopholes: Voluntary (and no enforcement possible) Aboriginal subsistence whaling scientific research Whales taken by ‘exceptions’ whaling (Japan, Norway, Iceland and ASW) 19452013 The impact of the Moratorium 1985/86 has seen a dramatic decrease in the number of whales killed by the leading whalers. The moratorium remains one of the greatest environmental success stories of the last hundred years. Aboriginal Subsistence Whaling Off of Barrow, Alaska People hunt individual whales off of small canoes Only take about 1520 whales annually Scientific Whaling Take about 1,000 whales annually A lot of pushback from conservation groups Japanese whalers try to use scientific whaling as their loophole They weren’t publishing enough, there was an order to stop whaling Whale meat market whale meat is a traditional food in several countries “Scientific” whaling products are often sold for public consumption Bioaccumulation and whales Consumption of marine mammal tissues can cause the recommended intake levels of various pollutants to be exceeded. Is whale meat safe? Some toothed whales will have a lot of mercury and bioaccumulation Historical vs. Modern whaling International conflict over whaling restrictions remain future regulation of whaling remains uncertain with likely regulated allowed catches planned for the next 10 years Japan is going to resume whaling Anonymous target Iceland sites whaling protest 12/2/15 Pollution in the Ocean Modern Oceans The ocean looks pretty pristine, but when one looks closer, there is a lot of chemical pollution, trash and plastics. The Ocean is a big place Trash dump for humans for 1000s of years Dilution effect or connection problem? Sources of marine pollution Noise Runoff (sediment, pesticides and nutrients) Sewage Chemicals, metals and radioactive substances oil garbage biological waste Scale of the problem Only about 4% of the ocean is unaffected by human activity Where does the pollution come from? Land 80% of marine pollution comes from land based activities Direct discharge and riverine flows Air Global atmospheric inputs to the sea Sea Discharge from ships, accidental spills and dumping (both legal and illegal) Sewage Point source pollution (it comes from one source) varying degrees of treatment Adds nutrients and chemicals to the ocean Runoff Nonpoint source pollution (it comes from many different things) Combination of multiple sources that wash into the ocean fertilizers and pest control chemicals oil, grease, and toxic fluids Sediments Acid drainage from abandoned mines bacteria and nutrients Impacts of runoff beaches closures drinking water contamination agricultural runoff and waterborne organisms cause disease and death in important fish stocks More than 1/3 of the shellfishgrowing waters are adversely affected by coastal pollution Formation of dead zones areas in the ocean where the water become hypoxic (when the level of oxygen is below what is needed to sustain life) When you have a high nutrient input from land, you can have a really large algal bloom. When they die, they all sink down to the bottom. This causes there to be very little oxygen at the bottom, not enough to sustain life Dead zones can be seasonal Because they are tied to primary producers, they really depend on the light in the environment In the spring, there is a lot of rain so the algal bloom stays low In the summer, there is a lot of sun, making the algae grow which causes the dead zone to spread In the fall, the storms break up the dead zones Dead Zone in the Gulf of Mexico Is very intense, you can see the separation of the dead zone and the healthy zone Is so extreme because of the runoff from the Mississippi River Many fish and shell fish die, this is not good because the Gulf of Mexico is a large fishery Dead zones are spreading They are getting bigger, becoming more frequent, happening in more places However, they are never in the news There are a lot off of the east coast of the U.S. Harmful Algal Blooms Increased nutrients can cause blooms of toxin producing phytoplankton Red Tide: Not all red algal blooms are harmful and not all harmful algal blooms are “Red” Impacts include human illness or death the shellfish eat the toxic phytoplankton economic losses fish, bird, and mammal mortalities Increasing in frequency toxic chemicals, metals, and radiation metals can act as a cumulative toxins (bioaccumulation) and can impact people when consumed Mercury, Cadmium, Lead and Copper Pesticides Designed to kill terrestrial insects but can be toxic to marine life in the ocean PCD (Polychlorinated biphenyls) used in industrial activities Can cause cancer, bio accumulate in the ocean Nuclear Waste Radiation in the ocean Pacific proving grounds testing nuclear weapons fro 19461962 (banned in 1963) Warning Proceed with caution be skeptical of what you find online pollution and conservation issues often have lots of “pseudoscience” online Check reputable scientific sources, not blogs, for your information Double check to see if multiple reputable sources agree! Detection of nuclear waste water Primary Cesium134 and Cesium137 30year halflife Levels detected offshore of Japan (even 20 miles from site) have been below safe exposure limits Fukushima reactor leak March 11, 2011: Earthquake and tsunami March 12: Nuclear meltdown at Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Plant July 22: Revealed power plant was leaking radioactive water into the Pacific Ocean perspective: 290 petabecquerels released from nuclear weapons testing vs. 16.2 petabecquerels from Fukushima Radiation levels were so low that scientists studying marine radiation levels did not need protective clothing! ‘Fake’ data scare tactics there are fake pictures online of the Fukushima nuclear leak, so be careful of things you find online Realistic measured data Levels detected are more than 1000 times lower than acceptable limits in drinking water set by US EPA Background radiation in the ocean Cesium137 in the surface ocean as of 1990 Black sea: 52 Bq/m^3 Irish sea: 55 Bq/m^3 Baltic sea: 125 Bq/m^3 Around the globe, the median is between 3 and 4 Human radiation inputs From global nuclear weapons testing 400 PBq From Chernobyl 85 PBq Fukushima Atmospheric is 1030 PBq, direct is 330 PBq Radiation risks Only bottom feeding fish very close to reactor leak Fishery has been closed since earthquake This may change if more radiation is released, particularly strontium90 is released from ground storage tanks Oil Spills Ship spills Well spills Exxon Valdes Oil tanker ran aground in Prince Williams Sound (Alaska) on March 24, 1989 Spilled about 260,000 barrels of crude oil Largest US oil spill before 2010 Effects of Valdes spill Killed 100,000250,000 seabirds 2,800 sea otters 12 river otters 300 harbor seals 247 Bald Eagles 22 orcas unknown number of salmon and herring Longterm reduction in many wildlife populations (some still hasn’t recovered!) Estimated 23,000 gallons of oil remaining in 2010 Deepwater Horizon Deepwater Horizon was a deep water drilling platform in the Gulf of Mexico 91,259 m water depth) Maximum drilling depth of over 10,000 m April 2010 explosion, fire and sinking of platform 4.8 million barrels of oil leaked until well capped on July 15, 2010 Finally capped September 2010 Where did the oil go? through the Gulf of Mexico, carried a little bit towards Florida through a loop current Effects of oil spills Coastal wetlands about 1,000 miles of coastal wetland Fisheries fishery closures decreased production by 20 percent Marine mammals 20102012, 817 bottlenose dolphin deaths vs. 100 per year 20022009 Deep sea Deep sea habitat not well known, largest unknown of impacts Marine Debris Beaches and shorelines Kamilo Beach, Hawaii “Trash Beach” A lot of debris from the earthquake A lot of trash from the pacific ends up here Water column small pieces of plastic Sea floor Sources of Marine Debris By land Litter and waste Beaches, Rivers, Drainage outflow, wind catastrophic events By sea (banned since 1988) Ships and atsea platforms Dumping, lost cargo, fishing and aquaculture activities, recreational activities Oceanographic activities “Great Pacific Garbage Patch” huge accumulation of trash in the ocean A result of the ocean gyres concentrates trash and debris Reality of Ocean Plastic The reality is that the plastic breaks down into small micro plastics, it makes up 90% of the plastic in the ocean. If a fish eats this, and we eat the fish, it can end up in us. Marine debris and human health Public safety Beach contamination Large debris as a hazard to navigation Seafood contamination fish eating plastic and bioaccumulation Transport of pathogens Threat to ocean health Changing the composition of the marine ecosystem We do not know how bad this problem is, it is a mystery and a silent problem Fate of plastics in the ocean the degradation of plastics in the ocean is unkown “cleaning it up” solution Boyan Slat 21yearold Dutch aerospace engineering student and inventor The solutions: extractions, prevention, interception Solutions to the pollution problem Correction Costly and time intensive only really feasible for pointsource pollution Prevention Requires increased awareness and attitude changes Pollution may cause irreversible changes to the world’s oceans prevention is the best course for the future.
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