Flashcards for Exam 2: The Odessey Exam
Flashcards for Exam 2: The Odessey Exam CLASSICS100
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Andie Sterling on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CLASSICS100 at University of Massachusetts taught by Mario Philippides in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 167 views. For similar materials see Classics 100 - Greek Civilization in Classical Studies at University of Massachusetts.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
Sparta was a militant society that did not have a tyranny oligarchy or a democracy They prided themselves on their military and led very simple S p a a lives Men were recruited into the military and women did gymnastics Corinth was a wealthy prosperous city Because Corinth was near a crossroads I as well as bodies of water C O there was lots of trade happening here Corinth was ruled over by an oligarchy The Perioikoi were people born in Laconia which was taken over by Sparta they were not citizens hey were sometimes P e O 1 k 01 taxed but they were primarily a workforce that provided for the Spartan people Sparta did not have a main form of government so these laws were instead 2 implemented to keep 1 order They helped guide people on how they should 1 L 8 live their day to day lives Clypselus is referred to as the quotfounder of tyrannyquot He overtook Corinth from the previous rulers and was 7 7 7 7 popular among the people He C S e 11 S started the practice of colonization making Corinth wealthier Tyranny was a common practice in ancient Greece Tyrants were usually well loved by the people who would back 7 7 7 7 the tyrant and help him take over Tyrants usually provided work and jobs for the common folk ltfont facequotTimes New Romanquot sizequot3quotgtOligarchies were made up of the wealthy who 39 had only their interests and 39 7 7 7 7 7 success in mind Oligarchies O 1 g a I C were made up of a small group i of aristocrats and did not care about commonerslt1 ontgt Some doubt Homer39s existence but he is credited with writing The j Iliad and The Odyssey 3 Homer Homer was a poet in 8th century Greece Both poets were unpopular i i where they were and are X e n O p h a n e S examples of poets who had to travel around to find those that they could tell their stories and 39 d ideas too In ancient Greece i someone wasn39t killed for P h a g 0 1quot a 8 having different views The first poet to mention tyrants He was an aristocrat but his mother was a slave woman so he was illegitimate so hebecameapoet and philosopher He is accredited with the invention of the lambic Meter An aristocratic poet His poems talked about the mingling of the classes mainly the wealthy 39 and the landowners h 39 aristocrats He believed that T e 0 g 8 just because someone had money didn39t mean they could marry into quotgoodquot blood Sappho was a female poet Her tales told of love and she was well liked She started her own i school made up of young S p h 0 beautiful women It is believed that she was part of a cult hat was dedicated to Aphrodite Very old ancient Greek statues that resembled the art of the ancient Egyptians in many ways including clothing These 7 7 7 39 were the precursors to the K beautiful and detailed Greek statues people look at today Kouroi means quotyouthquot Famous Greek statue and an example of how far Greek art e progressed in a short time 39 following the kouroi This statue showed that the Greeks C h a O t e e I had a better understanding of human anatomy and how to D 8 1p drape cloth over it A poet of Miletus Thales begged the question quotWhat is the primal stuff of which everything is madequot He was l h 7 1 7 7 known for studying the stars T a e S and trying to come up with 39 practical applications for his knowledge A council of elders all aged 60 and older who served as advisers for Sparta They dealt mostly with criminal affairs G e I O U S 1 a and any business that was to be brought before the people had to be approved by them first Athens was an extremely prosperous and wealthy city During ancient times it had been ruled by a series e n S of tyrants Here many laws were implemented to better the lives of it39s citizens A tyrant well loved by the Athenians He took care to exercise restraint and never did not lead an excessive life He 7 39 7 39 7 7 7 7 provided jobs and work for the P e 1 S 1 S t S commoners and never put himself above the law and followed society39s rules Ruled over Athens after his father Peisistratus He also took care to exercise restraint 39 and did his best to do his duty i 39 7 7 39 7 7 to the city He was later H 1 p p 1 a S overthrown when his brother i caused trouble and was murdered Brother to Hippias and son of Peisistratus He was a free thinker and poet that encouraged the arts in Athens 39 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 He used and abused his power when he became upset at 39 Harmodias and was later murdered Member of an aristocratic family that returned to favor He gave more power to the people by making residence a 1 39 h major factor in what allowed C e 1 e n e 8 people to vote Before people had to be wealthy and part of the aristocratic class Solon was an Athenian lawmaker and poet He was a well liked man who believed 7 in a well governed city He 1 S 010 n was known for his lawmaking 39 abilities and for the social reforms that he put into place Best known for the harsh laws that he put into place His laws usually placed land above the lives of people These harsh laws inspired the term D C O quotdraconianquot in reference to 39 cruel laws Credited with the first court systems The father of Telemachos and the hero of the Odyssey He fights Polyphemos on his 2 7 way home but doesn39t make O S e u 8 it back for 20 years because he angered Poseidon Penelope is his wife Penelope is the wife of Odysseus She waits for him loyally and turns down the suitors She is i P e n e 1 e the mother of Telemachos 2 She waits 20 years for Odysseus39s return Daughter of Zeus Throughout the book she gives help to Odysseus While he tries to find his way back home She also h e n a disguises herself as others frequently when trying to help Odysseus and Telemachos ltp classquotMsoNormalquot stylequot1ine height200quotgtPoseidon is the 39 God of the sea and is keeping 7 7 7 39 7 7 7 Odysseus from returning home P O 8 91d 0 I because Odysseus and his 39 companions blinded his son the Cyclops Polyphemosltpgt Odysseus39s homeland Here the story begins 3 with Telemachos j Ithaka Penelope and the 39 suitors A warrior old with age He had been 1 with Odysseus on his travels and says that he was killed An angry and persistant suitor He tells Telemachos that Penelope must marry and have a husband and stop grieving for 39 Odysseus He also calls on the O O 8 other suitors to try and get rid of Telemachos and murder him The woman who nursed both Odysseus and Telemachos as babies She is the only one who knows about Telemachos39s decision to leave and find his E U e a father She is the first to discover Odysseus39s identity when she washes his foot The first city visited by Telemachos Here 3 they find Nestor the j S Gerenian Horseman 39 and others Nestor is the elder of Pylos Heusedtobeaherobutnow Z he is old and has seen 3 39 generations of men pass by G e While he did travel with Odysseus he knows nothing i of the man39s whereabouts Z He is the King of Sparta Helen is his wife Long ago he had helped fight in the Trojan War alongside Odysseus He grieves 7 7 7 7 7 7 over his lost brother M e n e 1 a O S Agamemnon He offers Telemachos information on what happened to the survivors he beautiful wife of Menelaos She was captured by the Trojans S which was said to have j 1 e n started the war She offers to help Telemachos find his father A very beautiful goddess who is keeping Odysseus on her island She becomes frustrated h when Hermes comes from Mt Olympus to tell her she must let Odysseus go She sends K S O Odysseus off and he continues his journey She finds Odysseus struggling in the sea from Poseidon39s wrath and offers to help him She Z L eukoth e 8 gives him the veil of lno I which helps him make it to shore Given to Odysseus by the goddess I Leukothea It helps I him make it to shore I while he is struggling in the sea Nausikaa is a beautiful woman who finds Odysseus She gives him clothes and I I what he needs to bath she N aus 1k 8 a invites him back to her home and where to find her father and mother The daughter of Rhexenor Arete is a very beautiful I woman She is known to j bless others and solve quarrels among the people She is the wife of Alkinoos A wealthy man and the husband of Arete and father of Nausikaa Alkinoos The son of Alkinoos who challenges and insults Odysseus I Laodamas during a feast and 39 games The bard at the feast who sings of the battles at Troy These make Odysseus very 3 sad because they remind j him of the war and how far from home he still remains The Cyclops that Odysseus and his companions blind while on an island j Poseidon is the father of 1 Polyphemos and so Polyphemos tells Poseidon 39 what Odysseus has done Zeus is King of Gods and Men in ancient Greece Athena is his daughter He permits Athena to help I Odysseus and sometimes 39 he helps Odysseus as well Father of Odysseus Laertes Aoilos is the ruler of the Winds He gives Odysseus a bag of Winds to help him 2 I on his journey and even j O S conjures up a Wind to help him sail more quickly home on his journey Described as a beautiful Goddess When Odysseus and his men come to her island she Clrce turns them into pigs Odysseus escapes Provides Odysseus with food and shelter while Odysseus is still described He later I S helps Odysseus I reclaim his home Without knowing who he is speaking with lros insults 2 HOS and challenges 3 Odysseus to a fight She is a beautiful rnaidseryant in the house of Odysseus She scolds j Odysseus while he is still 3 dressed as a beggar She is the sister of Melanthius Odysseus39s grandfather l le was with Odysseus on the Autolykos hunting trip when his 1 foot was scarred He is a goatherd who supports the suitors and their endeavors 3 i a i He insults Odysseus 3 M61anthlos and is the brother of 39 Melantho The first suitor to die when battle broke out in Odysseus39s home He told I his tale about how he died i to Agarnernon and Achilles 1 when he was sent to the underworld