Week 15 ANT 102
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelsey Gaudette on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT 102 at Illinois State University taught by Fred Smith in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Human Origins in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Heidelbergensis A A larger version of homo erectus 1 2 B Wh 1 2 Expanded brain size Expanded height and width of brain case ere did we come from 400 lqa we had Heidelbergensis on three continents and they all looked the same Heidelbergs of East Africa evolve as part of the African Transitional Group C Tools 1 2 3 D Arc 1 Core tool Acheulian take pieces off and keep the core Levallois technique created more cutting edge by cutting stone into a tortoise shell shape and then whacking edge off produces two tools wider variety more useful cutting edge By 790000 years ago homo erectus had hearths to control re haeological sites Terra Amata one of the rst discoveries of manmade human habitations in Europe France 230000 years ago i Twenty to forty people could gather in this shelter ii Every Spring they would go to the same spot and reconstruct a hut there Lazaret Cave l 186000127000 years ago ii Natural cave where tent was built inside iii Shells and bear claws found as debris in the cave leads to the conclusion that seaweed and bear skins were used to make a bed E Europe 1 2 Neand 200000about 35000 years ago Neandertals develop in Europe West and Central Asia Neandertals i Early human species found in 1856 not accepted immediately ii Considered primitive race unable to breed with homo sapiens iii Buried their dead intentionally in sleeping positions iv Piltdown v Very wellknown at least 400 individuals with near complete skeletons vi Excellent anatomical knowledge vii Only found in Europe and Western Asia viii Stoclq in stature ertals descendants of Heidelbergs in Europe A Neandertal genetics 1 2 3 Human FOXP2 gene strong evidence that they had equivalent language capabilities to us MCRl variant in Neandertalsgtred hair and pale skin in moderns 13 of Europeans North Asian DNA is Neandertal B Neandertal culture and technology 1 Mousterian culture i Flake tools ii Sophisticated tools iii Diversity of types Hunters of large Pleistocene game animals and had the trauma to show for it i A lot of traumatic injuries shown in skeletal remains ii Extremely carnivorous makes sense based off metabolic rate Intentional burying I Proves belief in supreme being or some sort of religion Practice of cannibalism Made tents out of multiple skins and mammoth tusks i Molodova ii Revisited same site Denisovans contemporaries of Neandertals in Central Asia descendants of Heidelbergs in Asia A lnterbreeding 1 2 lnterbreeding with local Neandertals DNA representing 17 of Denisovan genome Also interbreeding with an unidenti ed ancient human Modern human origins A Modern human anatomy 1 7 8 Body form from the neck down is irrelevant because we39ve been the same for many years 2 Brain size hasn t changed 3 4 We have a smaller face like ATG Cranial vault shape of skull becomes high and round i Orthognathic at face ii Supraorbital torus brow ridge is absent Lower cheek margin is at a right angle and not oblique Much smaller teeth i Get pulled back into face ii Exposes presence of a chin Molars and premolars reduce i Todaythird molar agenesis Anterior teeth reduced i Because of our consumption of soft foods B Pattern of modern human appearance 1 2 Earliest fossil evidence in East Africa Sites are both in Ethiopia i Herto 160 kya ii Omo Out of Africa ll i Skuhl and Qafzeh lsrael 80100 lqa ii Modern anatomy supraorbital torus tropical body form Europe late arrival of modern people i Oase ii Mladec Czech Republic iii CroMagnon France Tropical body forms very different from Neandertals C What happened when modern homo sapiens sapiens encountered native populations outside Africa 1 Three different models i Total replacement ii Multiregional model iii Assimilation most accepted local population absorbed by large in migration of homo sapiens sapiens Early modern Europeans not all round headed i Could only have gotten occipital bun from Neandertals ii Unique to Neandertals and early modern Europeans iii Mladec 1A Mladec 5A Brno 2b Cromagnon 3 La chapelle aux Saints D Presence of blade tools and art PWF E Levallois done better Long blades sometimes halved to make knives Enabled us to make better tools Appearance of bone needles Upper Paleolithic art found in Aurignacian Europe and the Levant some 40000 years ago i Suggested to be religious ceremony for hunting and such ii 2025000 years ago we get statues representative of pregnant women