HSTA 255 Notes 30Nov-4 December 2015
HSTA 255 Notes 30Nov-4 December 2015 HSTA 255 - 01
Popular in Montana History
HSTA 255 - 01
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
HSTA 101H - 00
verified elite notetaker
This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 255 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Jeffrey M. Wiltse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Montana History in History at University of Montana.
Reviews for HSTA 255 Notes 30Nov-4 December 2015
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 12/04/15
Montana Indians during the Postwar Period 30 November 2015 Economic and social profile of Native Americans circa 1950 a quotReal Indians Soon to Call City Home Article i Cleveland to get more Indians from Western Reservations ii Filled with Stereotypical cliches unacceptable today 1 Thought to be clever lingo quotpowwows smoke signals etc written in the article representing Indian policies b Economic conditions on reservations were still very bad by 1950 i Median family income between 15 and 25 percent of national averages 1 Compare to 1015 in 19205 2 Vague statistics because of a person s identity as a Native American or not Many chose not to identify as one c Education i Significantly undereducated when measured by schoollearning and diplomas given compared to the rest of the American population 1 5 Native American adults had a high school diploma a National 35 adults had diplomas b Prior to 19505 not very many adults finished high school d Health i Highest rates of infant mortality of any social group in the country 1 Twice the national average decrease from 19205 ii Life expectancy of 42 years 1 Compare to 62 years nationally iii High rates of social diseases suicidality alcoholism iv 85 Native Americans still lived on reservations 1 Reservation life equivalent to 3rd world country a Stark contrast to the rest of the US the richest country in the world Postwar Federal Indian Policies i Partly in response to the continued bad conditions b Termination 1953 1 Developed under Truman administration Democratic enacted under Eisenhower administration Republican a Not a Partisan issue b Passed through both houses of congress unanimously i Many believed at the time that it was in the Indians best interest ii Would end the segregationisolation of Native Americans iii Put into perspective of the civil rights movement 1 Integrating Black Americans into Mainstream American life 2 Same integration should be applied to Native Americans iv Represented liberal thinking about race 1 Ending racialist policythinking of the past 2 All races are the same we should all act the same ii Intention behind the policy 1 Federal Government alters its policies towards Native Americans a Goes back to policy of the late 19th century i Dawes Act Indian Education Act 2 Break apart tribes 3 Assimilate Indians as individuals in mainstream American culture iii Empowered the federal government to do several things 1 End its trustee relationship with tribes and withdraw federal financial support of tribes a Fiscal Conservative Reduce spending on specifically Native Americans b Removes responsibility of supporting healthcare etc of the tribe as a whole 2 Enables government to cancel treaties and agreements that the federal government had made with tribes 3 Abolish tribal governments a One of the main components of the Indian Reorganization Act 4 Sell off tribal lands and other resources and disburse the money to individual tribal members 5 All in all abolishing tribesreservations curtailing services given to Native Americans iv Response among Native Americans 1 At first government intended to impose the policy on Indians without their consent a Place tribes into one of three categories i Tribes that would be terminated immediately 1 Members of that tribe were generally self sufficient ii Tribes to be terminated in a few years 1 Members close to selfsufficiency iii Tribes to be terminated much later 1 Members not close to selfsufficiency at all 2 Generally Native Americans protested this policy a Against government unilaterally imposing policy on tribes b Only tribes themselves had power to sever their relations with the government c Native Americans win the argument 3 After given the choice to terminate or not the vast majority of Native Americans rejected termination a In total 109 tribes terminated i Mostly small enrolled relatively few members b Only 3 Native Americans were in tribes that were terminated c In the end didn t effect v Montana tribes 1 None were terminated 2 Flathead Blackfeet Fort Belnap Fort Peck Reservations were originally targeted by the government for termination 3 Earl Old Person a quotIt is important to note that in our Indian language the only translation for termination is to wipe out or kill of b quotHow can we plan for our future when the Indian Bureau threatens to wipe us out as a race vi John F Kennedy abandoned the policy in 1962 due to continued oppo on c Relocation 1951 1 Intended to encourage Native Americans to move off of reservations and resettle in cities a At the time 85 all Native Americans still lived in reservations b Chicago Minneapolis Denver Los Angeles etc 2 Incentives included a Paying for moving expenses b Temporary housing in the destination cities 3 Helped Native American transplants find jobs ii Purposes 1 Integrate Native Americans into nonIndian communities as individuals 2 Improve Native Americans economic opportunities a Better economic opportunities in cities than on reservations b Reservations viewed as rural ghettos i Stifle economic upward mobility virtually impossible to leave iii Participants 1 Decisions made individually family basis not by tribes 2 Between 19511973 about 100000 Native Americans relocated as part of the program a During the same period another 100000 relocated not as a part of the relocation program 3 Largest cities to receive Native Americans a Chicago Los Angeles San Fransisco Denver Minneapolis 4 Montana Indians guesstimates a About 2000 Montana Indians participated directly as part of the program Another 23000 moved not as a part of the program Further away from these destination cities was harder to move away from reservations i When they did move it was more to Montana cities 1 Missoula Bozeman Great Falls Butte iv Consequences 1 Demographic changes a Drastically accelerated movement of Native Americans i Off of reservations ii From rural areas to urban areas 1 Reservations never located in cities b 1950 15 urban and off reservations 85 ruralon reservations c 2000 65 urban and off reservation 35 ruralon reservations d Montana tribes 2000 i 55 Blackgeet tribal members live off reservation ii 35 Salish Kootenai and Pend d Oriele live off reservation 2 Improved individuals economic opportunity a As both an individual and as a family b In this sense the policy was seen as a success c 2000 median family income i all americans 42000 ii All Native Americans 31000 1 73 of National average iii Native Americans on reservations 22000 1 Less than 50 of national average d Mostmany Native Americans who moved were younger in their economic primes i Shows the reservations lost those who were economically ableambitious 3 Contributed to pantribal Indian identity a Pantribal transcending tribes b On a reservation one learns the culture of that one tribe c Moving to cities and interacting with other tribes caused the integration of multiple tribal cultures i City culture was a combination of commonalities in one s identity as Native American not as part of a specific tribe 4 Social and cultural costs 5 Contributed to organized Indian activism a Emergence during late 19605 of organized protest among native americans i Developed out of citiesurban tribes Montana Indians in Modern Times 2 December 2015 I Indian Activists dated beginning in the late 19605 i Three main protests 1 Protested paternalistic federal policies 2 Against broken treaties of the past federal government not keeping promises 3 About the bad socialeconomic conditions plaguing so many Indians ii Call for quotRed Power 1 2 Inspired by black freedom struggle of civil rights movement Demanded greater autonomy and respect b American Indian Movement AIM for short i Founded in 1968 by Native Americans living in Minneapolis MN ii Grew into a national protest movement 1 2 Officesbranches in cities like San Fransisco Denver Chicago etc Offices also on reservations iii AIM Occupation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Office BIA in 1972 1 Protested paternalistic affairsbroken promises iv Standoff at Wounded Knee 1973 1 2 3 4 Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota Site of massacre in 1890 Demanded resignation of current Indian President Demanded Federal Government to return to making treaties with Native Americans a Originally ended in 1872 when government shifted to executive orders b Treaties meant that the reservations would be considered as sovereign nations c Did not receive their wish c Indians of All TribesNations i Alcatraz Occupation 1969 1 Lasted for 19 months 2 300 Native Americans representing 50 different tribes participated 3 Demanded control of the island to be turned into an Indian cultural center a Wanted to generate public interestrespect in public culture b Did not win this argument d Consequences of Indian activism i Helped raise public awareness about Native Americans their issues and their culture ii Helped alter public attitudes about Native Americans 1 Shifts to a more respectful manner a Helped to preserve their culture and support education 2 Educationally in popular culture are being shown in a better light 3 Montana s 1972 constitution a quotThe state of Montana recognizes the distinct and unique cultural heritage of the American Indians and is committed in its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural heritage iii Changing of Federal Indian policy 1 Redirecting goals in 19705 a Instead of terminating tribes tribal selfdetermination was promoted i Increase autonomy b Empowerment of Indian communities became important II Redirection of Federal Indian policy during the 19705 a Richard Nixon s 1970 speech before Congress i quot we must begin to act on the basis of what the Indians themselves have long been telling us The time has come to break decisively with the past and to create the conditions for a new era in which the Indian future is determined by Indian act and Indian decisions ii Was against paternalism proselfdetermination iii Native Americans must determine for themselves what should be done on reservations b Indian SelfDetermination and Education Assistance Act 1975 i Largely drafted by Blackfeet Indian Forrest Gerard 1 Born 1925 on Blackfeet reservation served in WW2 2 Used GI Bill to go to UMontana graduated in 1949 3 Worked largely with state organizations dealing with Indian Affairs 4 Hired by senator Scoop Jackson Washington State Senator a Wanted to play a major role in redirecting federal indian policy ii Established tribal selfdetermination as a primary goal of federal Indian policy iii Empowered tribes to contract with the federal government to operate their own 1 Health 2 Education 3 Social service 4 Law enforcement programs iv Transferred control of federal services to the tribal councils 1 Federal government would still provide the money but councils had control of how to use that money 2 2006 Northern Cheyenne received 52 million for health services on the reservation a Tribal government then allocated the money to 22 different health related programs on the reservation b Exemplifies selfdetermination running their own systems quotestablishment of a meaningful Indian selfdetermination policy which will permit an orderly transition from Federal domination of programs for and services to Indians to effective and meaningful participation by the Indian people in the planning conduct and administration of these programs and services c Other federal policies i Indian Health Care Improvement Act 1976 1 Also largely authored by Forrest Gerard 2 Established improving the health of Native Americans as a national priority a Much easier for Native Americans especially those on reservations to get access to affordablehigh quality medical care ii Tribally Controlled Community College Act 1978 1 Provided federal funding for tribal community colleges 2 Enabled Indians to stay within their communities while gaining access to higher education 3 All 7 of Montana s reservations now have community colleges iii Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act 1990 1 Requires public museumsuniversitiesinstitutions that have remainssacred objects of Native Americans to return them back to the communities III Social and Economic Conditions as of 2014 a Infant Mortality 761000 76 births compared to 6 national average b Life expectancy 737 years compared to 782 national average c Education i 82 Native Americans 25 or older have high school diplomaGED compared to 87 National Average ii 18 adults have BA degree compared to 29 nationally d Median Family income 37200 compared to 537000 nationally 69 e Poverty rates 283 Native Americans live below poverty line compared to 153 all Americans f Historic gap is shrinking significantly but Native Americans are still lagging 19705 Politics and Environmentalism 4 December 2015 I Introduction a The quottriple shift of the 19705 in Montana i Shift to the left in State Politics More liberal ii Rise of popular environmentalism 1 Became mainstream sensibilitypolitical priority iii Economic power of West to East 1 Declinenear collapse of metals mining 2 Growth of farmingenergy industry Political shift to the left a Conservative politics during the 19505 and 19605 i Dominated Montana during this period ii From 19401970 Republicans mostly dominated state government iii Pursued relatively conservative policies 1 Keep taxes low 2 Protect private property 3 Promote economic development iv Granted oil leases on public land to private companies 1 Companies mostly out of state coming into Montana 2 125 loyalty paid to the government a relatively low because government wanted oil extraction to take place b Democrats gain control of state government in the 19705 i Began in the late late 19605 ii Took control of governors office from 19691989 iii Gain control over both houses of state legislature in 19705 iv Governor Tom Judge governor 19731981 1 One of the most liberal governors of all time in MT c Examples of liberal legislation i State minimum wage ii Consumer protection laws 1 Involve government intervening inregulating private financial transactions between business and consumer 2 Expansion of regulatory capacitypower of the government iii Environmental protection laws iv Coal Severance Tax Act 1975 1 Established 3 tax on value of coal mined in Montana 2 Natural resource wealth in Montana shouldn t be treated as private wealth a Public should be fairly compensated when private company comes in to extract it d 1972 Montana Constitution 1 1889 Constitution no longer seemed effective ii ConstitutionalConvention 1 To draft a new state constitution 2 Voted to hold one in 1970 actually occurred in 1972 3 100 delegates elected to attend a Could not be serving in public office to serve as a delegate i Teachers housewives students political amateurs b 19 of the delegates were women politically progressive for the time c Meet for 54 days to draft the new constitution iii Constitution A Liberal Political Document a Liberalism looking to centralized government to be solution to problems in society and manage civil affairs i Wanted a greater degree of power vested in government 2 Expansive civil rights protections a quotThe dignity of the human being is inviolable i No discrimination against individual dignity 1 Not only by public entities but also private entitiesfirmscorporationsinstitutions 2 Race color sex culture social origin or condition political or religious ideas b Stated 35 civilindividual rights i Stronger protections than US Constitution ii Guarantees certain rights that US does not c 19 November 2014 Same Sex marriage becomes legal in Montana 3 Expanded the power of state government a Increased the function of state government b Number of cabinet level positionsdepartments increased i Entirely new bureaucracies could be created 4 Prioritized environmental protection a quotAll persons are born free and have certain inalienable rights They include the right to clean and healthful environment i reflects sensibility of the time prioritizing environmental protection even if it meant restriction of economic development 5 Native American history and culture a Mandated its preservation b quotThe state recognizes the distinct and unique cultural heritage of the American Indians and is committed to its educational goals to the preservation of their cultural integrity iv Voted on in 1972 barely passed 1 Ratified on 6 June 1972 2 Votes for 116400 a Mostly people in Urban citiesWest 3 Votes against 113900 a Mostly people in rural areasEast Rise of popular environmentalism i Before 19705 Montanans were willing to trade environmental degradation for economic development 1 Became more balanced greater priority given to the environment b Cutting edge environmental laws i Montana Environmental Policy Act 1971 1 Required state agencies to conduct environmental impact study of new mines mills power plants and housing developments before their development ii Montana Strip Mining and Reclamation Act 1973 1 Required mining companies to repair the land after they were done a Mostly applied to coal mining iii Montana Water Use Act 1973 1 Empowered government to closely regulate water use a Even on private property b Diminished rights of private property 2 Policed how peoplehouseholdsbusinesses used their water iv All of these view the statequality of the environment as a public concern c Grassroots activism Gals Against Smog and Pollution GASP i Air quality in Missoula late 19605 1 quotTo live in the Missoula valley is to breathe almost daily a filthy combination of vapor and industrial smoke that is harmful to health and destructive to the area s natural beauty Robert McGiffert Montana State Air Pollution Control Advisory Council ii GASP Gals Against Smog and Pollution 1 Women who wanted their families to grow up in better air 2 No mechanism for enforcing clean air law in Montana a GASP wanted the creation of an enforcing means 3 Organized ralliesprotests publicized effects of air pollution Targeted Craft Mill largest polluter in Missoula County i quotBad Sky Country ii quotHow high is the big sky iii quotOh say can you see a a 4 Covered nationally a Met with local resistance Missoulian newspaper criticized the group Letter written suggested GASP meant quotGals are Stupid People 5 Succeeded in getting countycity government to make a mechanism to enforce existing laws