HIS 101: Week 12
HIS 101: Week 12 HIS 101 Cr.3
UW - L
Popular in Global Origins of the Modern World
Popular in History
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Frankie Bjork on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
World War I (1914-1918): The West Turns on Itself (Bentley, ch. 35) Significance of WWI o Monarchies disappear o New countries formed o Collapse of Russia Leads to rise of Soviet Union (USSR) o First total war in history You will not win unless you have total military, economic, and industrial mobilization Could not win a total war without women o Showed that government involvement was need to prevent economic collapse Causes of WWI o Terrorism (anarchists) o Nationalism Serbian Nationalism in particular Serbia causes WWI o Alliance system Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Ottoman Empire France, Great Britain, and Russia Italy, Portugal, Greece, Serbia, and Romania Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and Spain o Imperialism o Militarism Belief that force can solve conflicts European countries were used to it The belligerents o Central Powers Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria o The Allies France, Great Britain, and Russian (original) Belgium after being invaded by Germany in order to get to France wanted nothing to do with the war United States (1917) Japan Italy (1915) How did technology and science shape the war? o The use of poison gas Inactivated by activated charcoal filters (in gas masks) Could blind and burn people o Machine guns and barbed wire Led to trench warfare Meant the war was stagnant o Blimps and airplanes o Haber Process-make ammonia (NH3) o Hydrogenate coal Gasoline Rubber How did geography shape the war? o Water (submarine takeover) Strategies to escape stalemates on the Western front o Central Powers’ strategies Take over Russia Was already weak because it was on the point of revolution Germany wanted them out Put Lenin in power and pull them out of the war (February 1918) Choke Britain’s supply line by using unrestricted submarine warfare Didn’t work in the beginning because Germany couldn’t sink any ship with an American flag Stated firing at American ships because they thought it would take too long for us to organize an army Didn’t knock Britain out, but brought America in o Allied Powers’ strategies Enter through Persian gulf to central powers can’t escape through the Mediterranean Set mine fields near Norway Blockade cuts off nitrate supply Attack Ottoman Empire, the weakest link They were going through something similar to Russia October 1918, first central power to back out of the war Cause a lot of problems with the Arabs Why the Allies barely won o Democracy was overthrown by communists in Russia o Countries had exhausted their manpower reserves America was the only one who hadn’t Was tipping point o Wilson’s “14 Points” No annexations No indemnities o Socialist revolution in Germany The Treaty of Versailles and its consequences o Division of Germany o New nations Ex. Poland o Collapse of empires/monarchies o Establishment of dictatorship o Women getting right to vote o Promise of Jewish homeland in Palestine o Feeling of betrayal in Germany o Threat of Communist takeover Totalitarianism Challenges Liberalism: Communism and Fascisms (1917- 1945) What is totalitarianism? o “Absolute control of everything by the state” o Form of government where the state totally controls the individual, media, economy, and social institutions (schools, churches, labor unions, etc.) through fear and propaganda. (Hollenbeck’s definition) o Characteristics Only one political party Deliberate use of terror as a way to force the citizens into conformity Secret police Propaganda Principle types of it o Communism – left-wing version Liberal Wanted to get rid of private properties Banks, mines, factories, railroads, insurance companies, etc… o Fascisms – right-wing versions Reactionary Extremely conservative (Jihad in the Islamic State) Italy, Germany (Nazism), and Japan Anti-Semite: hatred of Jews What is fascism? o A militantly nationalistic, imperialistic ideology which repudiates both Liberalism and Socialism/Communism o Glorify war, use of force o Always want to conquer their neighbors Key features of fascism o Supports private property o First fascist: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) o Social Darwinism: power comes from the survival of the fittest Strong countries deserve to rule over the weakest ones o Intensely nationalistic o Militaristic o Hatred of Communism and Socialism Where most of its appeal came from o Strongly subordinate the individuals to the state The rise of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and Nazism in Germany’s Third Reich (1933-1945) o Jews (yellow star), homosexuals (pink triangle), gypsies, and disabled o Weimar Republic Formed when Germany lost the WWI A democracy that had to sign the Treaty of Versailles o Why was the Nazi program so dangerous? Communism in the Soviet Union (1917-1939)
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