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HIS 101: Week 12

by: Frankie Bjork

HIS 101: Week 12 HIS 101 Cr.3

Frankie Bjork
UW - L

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This finishes to notes on World War One and starts Totalitarianism.
Global Origins of the Modern World
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Frankie Bjork on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 101 Cr.3 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Global Origins of the Modern World in History at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.


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Date Created: 12/04/15
World War I (1914-1918): The West Turns on Itself (Bentley, ch. 35)  Significance of WWI o Monarchies disappear o New countries formed o Collapse of Russia  Leads to rise of Soviet Union (USSR) o First total war in history  You will not win unless you have total military, economic, and industrial mobilization  Could not win a total war without women o Showed that government involvement was need to prevent economic collapse  Causes of WWI o Terrorism (anarchists) o Nationalism  Serbian Nationalism in particular  Serbia causes WWI o Alliance system  Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Ottoman Empire  France, Great Britain, and Russia  Italy, Portugal, Greece, Serbia, and Romania  Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, and Spain o Imperialism o Militarism  Belief that force can solve conflicts  European countries were used to it  The belligerents o Central Powers  Austria-Hungary, Germany, Ottoman Empire, and Bulgaria o The Allies  France, Great Britain, and Russian (original)  Belgium  after being invaded by Germany in order to get to France  wanted nothing to do with the war  United States (1917)  Japan  Italy (1915)  How did technology and science shape the war? o The use of poison gas  Inactivated by activated charcoal filters (in gas masks)  Could blind and burn people o Machine guns and barbed wire  Led to trench warfare  Meant the war was stagnant o Blimps and airplanes o Haber Process-make ammonia (NH3) o Hydrogenate coal  Gasoline  Rubber  How did geography shape the war? o Water (submarine takeover)  Strategies to escape stalemates on the Western front o Central Powers’ strategies  Take over Russia  Was already weak because it was on the point of revolution  Germany wanted them out  Put Lenin in power and pull them out of the war (February 1918)  Choke Britain’s supply line by using unrestricted submarine warfare  Didn’t work in the beginning because Germany couldn’t sink any ship with an American flag  Stated firing at American ships because they thought it would take too long for us to organize an army  Didn’t knock Britain out, but brought America in o Allied Powers’ strategies  Enter through Persian gulf to central powers can’t escape through the Mediterranean  Set mine fields near Norway  Blockade cuts off nitrate supply  Attack Ottoman Empire, the weakest link  They were going through something similar to Russia  October 1918, first central power to back out of the war  Cause a lot of problems with the Arabs  Why the Allies barely won o Democracy was overthrown by communists in Russia o Countries had exhausted their manpower reserves  America was the only one who hadn’t  Was tipping point o Wilson’s “14 Points”  No annexations  No indemnities o Socialist revolution in Germany  The Treaty of Versailles and its consequences o Division of Germany o New nations  Ex. Poland o Collapse of empires/monarchies o Establishment of dictatorship o Women getting right to vote o Promise of Jewish homeland in Palestine o Feeling of betrayal in Germany o Threat of Communist takeover Totalitarianism Challenges Liberalism: Communism and Fascisms (1917- 1945)  What is totalitarianism? o “Absolute control of everything by the state” o Form of government where the state totally controls the individual, media, economy, and social institutions (schools, churches, labor unions, etc.) through fear and propaganda. (Hollenbeck’s definition) o Characteristics  Only one political party  Deliberate use of terror as a way to force the citizens into conformity  Secret police  Propaganda  Principle types of it o Communism – left-wing version  Liberal  Wanted to get rid of private properties  Banks, mines, factories, railroads, insurance companies, etc… o Fascisms – right-wing versions  Reactionary  Extremely conservative (Jihad in the Islamic State)  Italy, Germany (Nazism), and Japan  Anti-Semite: hatred of Jews  What is fascism? o A militantly nationalistic, imperialistic ideology which repudiates both Liberalism and Socialism/Communism o Glorify war, use of force o Always want to conquer their neighbors  Key features of fascism o Supports private property o First fascist: Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) o Social Darwinism: power comes from the survival of the fittest  Strong countries deserve to rule over the weakest ones o Intensely nationalistic o Militaristic o Hatred of Communism and Socialism  Where most of its appeal came from o Strongly subordinate the individuals to the state  The rise of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) and Nazism in Germany’s Third Reich (1933-1945) o Jews (yellow star), homosexuals (pink triangle), gypsies, and disabled o Weimar Republic  Formed when Germany lost the WWI  A democracy that had to sign the Treaty of Versailles o  Why was the Nazi program so dangerous?  Communism in the Soviet Union (1917-1939)


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