CST 110: Weeks 11 and 12
CST 110: Weeks 11 and 12 CST 110
UW - L
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Frankie Bjork on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CST 110 at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse taught by Dr. Thaldorf in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Communicating Effectively (CST 110, Carey Thaldorf in Communication Studies at University of Wisconsin - La Crosse.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Communicating in Groups What constitutes a small group A minimum of 3 people A maximum of 820 people Focus on group goals Avoid behavior that detracts from goals Setting and following an AGENDA helps members stay on track Group member roles Task Roles o Handson roles ie collecting information analyzing the issues Maintenance Roles o Interpersonal relationships Avoid antigroup roles ie focusing on individual needs instead of group needs 0 Group leader also have Procedural meetings note taking setting agenda Roles ie setting up Resist groupthink Accepting information and ideas without subjecting them to critical analysis Group members reach consensus in order to avoid con icts and run the risk of hurting someone s feeling even if they don t agree Members who don t agree with majority are pressured to conform Disagreements tough questions and counterproposals discouraged More effort spent rationalizing orjustifying a decision than testing it are Optimizing decision making methods Devil s Advocate o Arguing to raise issues or concerns Dialectical Inquiry o Proposing countersolutions to ideas Effective group leadership styles Participative leadership 0 Leader makes decisions with the groups Autocratic leadership 0 Makes decisions and announces them to group Consultive leadership 0 Makes decisions after discussing issues with group Delegative leadership 0 Asks the group to make decisions Leadership responsibilities 0 Setting goals 0 Being the catalyst to reaching group goals Encouraging active group participation 0 Directly ask members to contribute 0 Set a positive tone 0 Use devil s advocate and dialectical inquiry John Dewey s problem solving method 0 Identify the problem 0 What is being decided upon 0 Conduct research and analysis 0 What information is needed to solve the problem 0 Establish guidelines and criteria to judge problem solved 0 Generate solutions 0 Conduct brainstorming sessions 0 Select best solution 0 Weigh the relative merits of each idea against guideline and criteria for solving to problem Leadership and Decision Making in Groups Leadership de nition 0 All leadership de nitions contain the following idea 0 The ability to director in uence other s behaviors and thoughts toward a productive end Sources of Power 0 Legitimate Power 0 Comes from an individual s role or title President Supervisor Coach Teacher Coercive Power 0 Comes from a person s ability to threaten or harm others A dictator Gangs o Rewa rd Power 0 A person s ability to provide rewards to others Money Fame Elected of ce not always 0 Expert Power 0 Comes from speci c relevant knowledge the leader possesses Doctor Professor Professional degree and experience 0 Referent Power 0 Comes from the respect admiration or affection others have for aleader Shared Leadership 0 Leadership can be shared by a few members of a group who each control speci c tasks and draw on different sources of power 0 Can help members feel more satis ed and more motivated to perform 0 More likely to achieve their goals Group Leadership Styles Directive Leaders 0 Convey speci c instructions to the group Most effective when group members are unsure of expectations or tasks Supportive Leaders 0 Attends to the group s emotional needs Works best when the group members are frustrated and need positive reinforcement or mentoring Participative Leaders 0 Views group members as equals welcoming input and discussion Works best when group members are competent and motivated to take on tasks LaizzezFaire Leaders 0 Give up some degree of power or control and gives it to team members Achievementoriented Leaders 0 Set challenging goals and high expectations for members Requires competent motivated and creative group members Leadership Qualities Adapting leadership styles to meet group needs enhance productivity and member satisfaction 0 Have vision charisma and initiative 0 Have credibility with the group 0 Use communication skills to inspire members 0 Treat all group members ethically Gender and Leadership 0 Studies nd that men and women do not lead differently Leadership styles more often dictated by the communication style of the organization than leader gender 0 The stereotype of men and women having different leadership styles is still widely held Cultural Variations Leaders from lowcontext cultures like the US may clarify points more directly than those form highcontext like Japan which tend to be less direct Leaders in high power distance cultures may have to encourage participation in discussions more than leaders in lower power distance cultures Forces that shape group decisions 0 Cognitive Forces 0 Group members beliefs and thoughts in uence how members perceive interpret evaluate store and retrieve information Psychological Forces 0 Group members emotions attitudes motives and values 0 Social Forces 0 Group standards for behavior that in uence decision making Leadership in meetings 0 Plan meetings effectively 0 Plan meeting ahead of time o Justify meeting including goals to be accomplished and who should attend o Clarify purpose of meeting and roles of attendees 0 Set a clear agenda setting time location length etc 0 Managing meetings 0 Arrive prepared knowing goals and backgrounds 0 Keep group focused on goal of meeting 0 Watch the time set time limits to some discussions 0 Manage distractions with etiquette policies Manage con ict 0 Summarize periodically to give members a chance to con rm correct or clarify 0 Follow up with members after meeting to detail the decisions and everyone has the same perceptions and ideas about goals 0 Group Performance Evaluation InformationalConsiderations o Is group need and progressing toward goals 0 Regular assessments can help address problems promptly Procedural Effectiveness 0 Evaluating how the group coordinates activities and communications 0 Assesses how the group elicits contributions summaries decisions and handles con ict Interpersonal Performance 0 Assesses relationships between group members while they are working together toward group goals 0 Asks such things as Do members provide positive reinforcements Do members feel a sense of solidarity Do members cooperate feer with each other Do members respect one another 0 Individual Performance 0 Examining what you bring to the group including whether you feel negatively about it grouphate Presenting in Teams Team Presentations 0 Oral presentations prepared and delivered by a group of 3 or more people 0 Common in classroom and workplace Requires close cooperation and planning Working in Teams 7 Considerations for Success 1 Analyze the audience and set goals a Consider interest and needs of audience when selecting topics b Consider how your team can meet those needs 2 Assign roles and tasks a Designate team leader to help guide coordination between members b Assign team members to various aspects of research i Who presents what c Set rm time limits d Make sure each team member know what the others are responsible for 3 Establish transitions between speakers a Work out transitions ahead of time to ensure smooth transitions between speakers 4 Consider each presenters strengths a Choose presenter with strongest presentation style and credibility level for introduction b Cautious presenters should be placed in the middle of the presentation c Select another strong speaker for the conclusion 5 Coordinate presentation visual aids a Consider giving one person the job of coordinating templates for slide and other visuals b Ensure that each presentation aid is consistent in color font and style 6 Pay attention to your nonverbal communication to the audience a Give full attention to the other speakers on your team b Project an attitude of interest to the audience 7 Rehears the presentation several times a Use everything you ve got to make a smooth and powerful presentation i Speaking talent ii Visual aids iii Research b YOU NEED TO REHEARSE THIS TO MAKE IT SMOOTH AND STRONG Presenting in Panels Symposia and Forums 0 Group discussions designed to allow multiple speakers to share their expertise with the audience Panel Discussions 0 Group discuss a topic in front of an audience using a moderator to direct the discussion Symposium 0 A formal meeting where several speakers deliver short speeches on different aspects of the same topic Forum 0 An assembly for the discussion of issues of public interest Commonly referred to as a TOWN HALL MEETING 0 Citizens debate issues of community importance Business and Professional Presentations Presentational Speaking vs Public Speaking 0 Less formal than public speaking Classroom or workplace audiences more likely to be captive o Likely to be Homogeneous Share information with each other 0 Audience perceives speaker as quotFirst Among Equalsquot o A member of a group who is officially on the same level as the other members but who in fact has slightly more responsibility or power 0 Same ethical standards of trustworthiness respect responsibility and fairness Sales Presentations Attempts to persuade potential buyer to purchase a service or product described by presenter Audience are people with authority to make purchase Organized like persuasive speech Monroe s Motivated Sequence a common organizational pattern Proposals Persuasive presentation trying to persuade listeners to favor one course of action over another 0 Audience can vary from single person to large group Long Proposal Organization 0 Introduce the Issue 0 State the Problem 0 Describe method the problem was investigated 0 Describe facts learned from investigation 0 Offer explanations and interpretation of the ndings 0 Offer recommendations Brief Proposal Organization 0 State your recommendations 0 Offer a brief overview of the problem 0 Review the facts on which the recommendation is based Staff Report Lets the managers and other employees know of new developments that could affect them and their work 0 Audience could be a group or an individual Staff Report Organization 0 State the problem or question under consideration 0 Provide a description of the procedures and facts used to address the issue 0 Discuss the facts that are pertinent to the issue 0 Provide a concluding statement 0 Offer recommendations Progress Report 0 Similar to staff report but audience for this can include people outside the organization as well as within it 0 Audience could be a group of clients or customers developers and investors supervisors company officers media representatives or samelevel coworkers Progress Report Organization Brie y review progress made up to the time of the last report Describe new development since the last report Describe the personnel involved in their activities Detail time spent on tasks Explain supplies used and costs incurred Explain any problem and their resolution Provide an estimate of tasks to be completed for the next report Crisisresponse Presentation 0 Designed to assure an organization s audience and restore the organization s credibility in the face of public threats 0 Audience might be one audience or multiple audiences Crisisresponse presentation organization 0 Anywhere from simple denial to admitting responsibility and asking for forgiveness 0 Use of image restoration strategies will allow the speaker to select the best technique for the situation at hand Case Study Presentations 0 A detailed analysis of a real business situation Case Study Presentations Organizations Descriptionoverview of major issues in the case Statement of major problems and issues involved Identi cation of any relevant alternatives to the case Presentation of the best solutions and the logic behind them Recommendations for implementing solutions