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Week 9 Notes

by: Demi Chang
Demi Chang
Introduction to Textiles
Sun, Gang

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Hi Everyone! Here is the last week of notes~ Good luck to everyone during Finals Week! Happy Studying~
Introduction to Textiles
Sun, Gang
Class Notes
Gang Sun UC Davis Fall Quarter 2015 Introduction to Textiles TXC 006
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Demi Chang on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to TXC 006 at University of California - Davis taught by Sun, Gang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Textiles in Textile and Apparel Management at University of California - Davis.

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Date Created: 12/04/15
TXC 006 Introduction to Textiles lecture Notes 3 AntistaticFinished Fabrics Fabrics with increased electrical conductivity or decreased static buildup due to the presence of antistats on the ber surface Softeners can be used to reduce static buildup D SFinishing Often AcetateTriacetate fabrics are immersed in sodium hydroxide solution to hydrolyze surface polymers to cellulose 3 AntimicrobialFinished Fabrics Also known as antibacterial or antiseptic nished fabrics they show reduced microbial growth due to the presence of antimicrobial chemicals in the fabrics These fabrics are made into consumer hygiene products or personal protection protective clothing EgtAntimicrobial includes Released and Bound Antimicrobials 1 Released Antimicrobials These are effective as a poison when consumed by the microorganism and when it is diffused from the nished fabric It cannot be bonded to a surface to function Diffusion dilutes the concentration and can allow the microorganisms to build a tolerance against the antimicrobial It is effective against broad microorganisms and ineffective against fungi yeasts or algae 2 Bound Antimicrobials These are chemically attached to the applied surface It has an unlimited capacity to kill like a sword by interrupting the microorganisms39 cell membranes No diffusion or tolerance develops like with Released Antimicrobials It is effective against a broad spectrum of microorganisms like mold bacteria fungi mildew algae and yeast EgtAntimicrobial can be classi ed as 1 Biostatic Inhibits microbial growth such as reducing odor molds and mildew 2 Biocidalismicrobes 7quot Antimicrobial biostatic fabrics are also used to preserve textiles in museums or in the arts which is known as Conservation 3 Aesthetic Appeal Finishing Finishes applied to garmentsfabrics to enhance its appearance and feel The categories include D Finishing to Alter Luster 1 Calendering Two or more smooth vertical rollers that are hydraulically compressed against each other The rollers have faces of steel and compressed paper Calenders are expensive due to the minimum tolerance of error in the manufacturing of the rollers 2 Altered Luster Fabrics include A ired Fabrics Has a deep glossy patentleatherlihe surface made by wax application and using a highly polished heated steel friction calender that rotates at a higher surface speed It is usually taffeta and satin fabric made by thermoplastic bers B Glazed Polished Fabrics The process is identical to cired fabric except it is nished on cotton plain woven fabric with temporary starchwax or more durable resin C Schreinerized Fabrics Fabrics with enhanced luster due to a shcreiner calender that attens the yarns to create a smoother surface It has one roller engraved with 150350 diagonal lines inch at a twenty degree angle and heated to 300 degrees Fahrenheit and one soft ber bottom roller D Beetled Fabrics Linen and cotton fabrics that are lustrous at closed and rm due to pounding with wooden hammers The yarns are visibly atter and woven structure much closer D Finishing to Alter Texture 1 Embossed Fabrics They have a raised design or motifs resulting from pressing fabric between engraved rollers on an embossing calender The fabric is usually plainwoven or satin and the design may be crinkledjacquard motifs or similar to a complex dobby Longevity is determined by ber content structure and design complexity z Moire Fabrics Fabrics that has a wavy or watermark design that has high lustrous area surrounded by less lustrous areas that are separated by a random and wavy boundary Unbalanced plain woven fabrics with lament yarns of silk acetate and triacetate are given a moire nish 3 Sanded Sueded and Emerized Fabrics Sueded fabrics have a chamoislihe appearance or a suedelike texture due to raised surface bers from abrasion action Sanding is abrading the fabric surface with sandpaper Emerized fabrics are lightweight soft and made through a less vigorous process than sanding or sueding 4 5 Pleated Fabrics Fabrics with many folds created during passage through pleating machinery Polyester and nylon requires heat setting after mechanical folding Sheared Fabrics Pile and napped fabrics that have even surfaces due to cutting the surface bers D Finishing to Alter Color Alteration Sr Whiteness 1 Mercerized Fabrics and Yarns Fabrics that dye to brighter and darker shades and are more strong lustrous and absorbent but stiffer due to immersion in a cold bath of concentrated sodium hydroxide solution while under tension It is then neutralized with an acid Mercerized bers have a rounder cross section cylindrical shape less crystalline and have stronger internal bonds These fabrics are usually made of cotton LiguidAmmoniaFinished Fabrics and Yarns Fabrics dyed more deeply and more lustrous absorbent and soft due to liquid ammonia treatment However it has less luster brightness and moisture absorption than mercerized fabrics It also decreases stiffness while Mercerization increases stiffness Prewashed Garments With sizing removed and laundered prior to sale these denim garments are softer less relaxation shrinkage and look slightly worn Stonewashed Garments Usually done on denim fabrics to change coloration these garments have a distressed appearance fuzzy texture puckered seams and slightly worn from tumbling with stones in a cylindrical washer Acidwashed Garments Stonewashed garments that have been tumbled with stones containing an oxidizing agent to decrease the amount of physical damage due to the reduced tumbling time StonelessWashed Enzyme Washedl Garments Garments with a distressed appearance and soft feel from using enzymes or a cellulasebased solution that degrades the cotton ber surface but causes less damage than stone and acidwashed fabrics Optically Brightened Fabrics Fabrics appearing brighterwhiter when placed under UV light due to optical whiteners dye molecules that absorb UV lights outside the visible region and reemit it visibly as blue Lecture Points Blue yellow can produce white The ranges of light include UV light 200400 nm Visible 400750 nm and Purple Blue 400450 nm D Finishing to alter Hand and Body 1 Softened Fabrics Fabrics that have a slicker smoother softer feel due to the presence of softening compounds on the ber surfaces This reduces the static effect 2 Stiffened or Sized Fabrics Fabrics that are stiffercrisper due to stiffening compounds usually starch These fabrics are more dif cult to bend and less drapable 3 Weighted Fabrics Silk fabrics that are heavier and more drapable due to treatment with metallic salts iron tin or aluminum to replace the gum that was boiled off and makes the fabric imsy Body cover and dye absorption of the fabrics increases while light and oxygen resistance decreases It must be dry cleaned because the nish is removed during laundering D Fulled Fabrics These are woolen and worsted fabrics wool that are more dense compact soft and bulky to due the process of moisture heat chemicals friction and pressure that creates matting and sh nkage 1 Silklike Finished Fabrics Fabrics usually polyester that is subjected to sodium hydroxide to decrease the ber diameter 2 Parchmentized Fabrics Fabrics that are characteristically translucent and crispy like parchment paper due to strong sulfuric acid solution for 56 seconds and calendered after neutralization 3 AntiodorOdorControlled Fabrics Fabrics that have reduced rate of odor buildup due to reduced rate of bacterial growth from antimicrobials 2 Finishing Sr Dyeing D Shrinkage in Fabrics Shrinkage occurs in fabric due to Tension Swelling and Felting 1 Relaxation Shrinkage is shrinkage due to tension relief during processing Some fabrics also shrink during laundering because their bers absorb water molecules and swell increase in diameter D Compressiver Stabilized Sanforized Fabrics The fabric tension is decreased by a mechanically nishing process called compressive stabilization This is usually applied to cotton HWMrayon ax and cellulosicblend fabrics that are stabilized 1 LiguidAmmoniaTreated Sr Compressiver Stabilized Fabrics Cotton fabrics that have reduced relaxation shrinkage are smooth drying and softer due to treatment with liquid ammonia and mechanical manipulation in a compressive shrinkage control unit 2 Heat Set Fabrics Thermoplastic ber fabrics that have reduced relaxation shrinkage and increased wrinkle resistance due to heat application In heatsetting fabrics are heated to temperatures higher than glass transition temperature but less than melting temperature when under tension 3 LondonShrunk or Sponged Fabrics Worsted fabric that have been subjected to moisture to remove stress This process creates a build up of alternate layers of wet blankets and worsted fabrics under pressure on a long table to gain London shrinking EgtWashable Wool Fabrics Woolen or high wool content fabrics that are prone to shrinking excessively when washing in hot water Felting occurs due to the directional frictional effect of wool39s scales Wool fabrics become machinewashable because felting shrinkage is controlled by chlorinating bers to destroy the scales coating the bers with polymers to mask the scales or spot welding the bers to prevent ber migration 1 Other washable fabrics include A MachineWashable RegularRayon Fabrics Rayon fabrics with reduced swelling shrinkage due to intra ber crosslinking by a resin B Washable Silk Fabrics Silk fabrics that are machinewashable due to a chemical process because most of the traditional weighting agents for silk are water soluble D DurablePress Garments Cellulosic Blends Garments that have good shape retention in wear and laundry including smooth drying when laundered at seams sharp pleats and intentional creases They are wrinklefree during wear and after home laundering drying due to durablepress resins Most of these garments are made of fabrics with blends of cotton or rayon with a synthetic ber usually polyester The creation of covalent crosslinks between polymers and durablepress resins prevents creases increases premature greying rate and stiffness and decreases soil release and absorbency 1 Preured Durable Press The durablepress resin is cured before the garment is made Fabric Resin Dry Cm gt Cut Sew Hot Head Press 2 PostCured Durable Press The resin is cured after the garment is made Fabric Resin Dry gt Cut Sew Press Cure in Oven 7quot Performance TradeOff Crosslinking improves resilience in cotton bers but it reduces elongation tenacity abrasion resistance exibility and increases stiffness They are also soil scavengers where the soil makes the fabric premature grey and reduces its absorbency It should also be laundered before use to remove formaldehyde 1 Permanentset Wool Fabrics Wool fabrics that has sharp pleats and creases during wear laundering and drycleaning because they have been relaxed and chemically treated This treatment allows the bonded protein chains to move in relation to each other and involves breaking Hbonding and disul de bonds to reform in a new position 2 DurablePress Wool Garments Wool garments that has sharp pleats and creases and have a smooth appearance from special polymers To achieve this performance it must be shrinh resistant to prevent felting and be set to maintain its shape 3 Antipilling Fabrics Highly napped fabrics that reduces pill formation due to proprietary bonding agents 4 SoilRepellentFinished Fabrics Fabrics with reduced rates of soiling water and oil bead up on their surfaces allowing time for these liquids to be removed This is due to the presence of silicone or uorocarbon compounds 5 SoilRelease Finished Fabricstabrics where oily soil is easily removed due to soilrelease agents 6 SoilRepellentandReleaseFinished Fabrics Fabrics that have reduced rates of soiling and are easily cleaned when oily soil penetrates due to unique bloch polymer on the ber surface Fluorochemicals most water soil resistant but most expensive Resin base Used the most for wrinkle resistance 7 StainResistantFinished Fabrics Carpeting fabrics that have higher resistance to staining by anionic compounds found in arti cially colored fooddrinks due to stainresistant agents 8 MothResistantFinished Fabrics Wool fabrics that have more resistance to moth larvae due to mothproo ng agents 9 Moldand MildewResistantFinished Fabrics Cellulosic fabrics that have reduced growth rates of mildew and molds due to chemicals 10 lightStabilized Fabrics Fabrics with reduced rate of disintegration from UV light due to lightstabilizing chemicals Modacrylic is the most stable under UV light 1 Goal Produce appealing level fast color on product at reasonable price with good performance and minimal environmental impact 2 Complex Area It is dif cult to get color on fabric in uniform appearance level that will not fade bleed or alter appearance Complex Phenomenon Physics of light chemistry of colored objects biology of the eye behavioral sciences and aesthetics all play into dyeing Dyed Textiles Textiles with a colorant that is uniformly distributed within or on the ber surface throughout a yarnfabric Dyg Organic chemicals that are able to selectively absorb and re ect light wavelengths within the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrumWhile UV Light is 200400 nm it is split into three UVA is 320400 nm UVB is 280320 nm and UVC is 200280 nm Dyes include two groups A Chromophore A conjugated system of loosely held electrons that provides color Auxochrome This intensi ed and deepened colors allows dye to be soluble and enables forces of attraction between dye and ber polymers D Dye Classes 1 M Used on Cellulose cotton often the dye comes off 2 Reactive Used on Cellulose and Protein mostly cotton but wool too used for tiedying 3 4 Vidndigo Used for Cotton speci cally forjeans and is bleachable making it t for institutional m Used for Cotton speci cally for dark colors textiles M Used for Protein wool and silk and Nylon Basic Used on Acrylics 7 Disperse Used on Polyester Nylon Acetate Triacetate and Polypropylene hydrophobic bers It has the special ability to sublime where it turns from solid to gas 0 Pigments Water insoluble microscopicsized color particles that are held on the ber surface by a resin Deep colors can not be achieved it is more like a staining process Designers use this for a faded color effect 7quot Video The perceived color depends on 1 The illumination or light 2 The object and 3 The observer D ColorationColor Effect 1 Z mHaving one color throughout where the bers have the same color hue and shade value Heather Having bers of different colors or shades of the same color blended within the yarns of a fabric Tweed Having small spots of color randomly distributed over a fabric due to colored bers that are incorporated in a random fashion into yarns m Having a spotted or blotched appearance from yarns that have different colors along their length Variegated Mixed Having many colors that blend together m Having a softened subdued or deadened color by using strands of different colors in yarns or using yarns of different colors in the warp and lling directions in woven fabrics Iridescent Having a sparkling effect created by the appearance of different colors at the peaks and valleys of folds when fabric is draped Having motifs and patterns including stripes checks plaids colorandweave designs colorandknit designs computerinjection designs and batik shapedresist and ikat designs Note that with Computer Injected Design printers can be categorized into Laserjet and Inkjet Printers where Laserjet relies on powdered pigments and Inkjet relies on liquid cartridge lled dyes D Dyeing Process 1 6 Producer Dyeing Adding colorant to polymer spinning solutions during the processing of manufacturing bers Gel Dyeing Adding colorant to wetspun bers while they are in the gel state not yet fully crystallizedoriented Stock Dyeing Adding dye to bers in loose form Cotton does not use this process because it would be dif cult to separate when wet however wool does use this process Top Dyeing St Tow Dyeing Adding a dye to top a strand of straightened paralleled separated wool bers or tow laments that are in the form of a robe that will be cut to form staple ber Yarn Dyeing Adding dye to yarn before fabric formation This process is less costly than stock top or tow dyeing because more substrate can be dyed at one time It can be dyed on A Skein for soft lofty yarns B Package the most common method C Beam large version of package dyeing speci cally for warp yarns Space Dyeing Adding dye to yarn so that it has different colors at irregular intervals along its length This is achieved by A Printing a knit fabric and unraveling it B Squirting dye from a needle into a yarn package 7 C Spraying colorant into yarn skeins Piece Dying Adding a colorant to fabric in the piecequot Piecedyed fabrics costs less than stockyarndyed fabrics because more fabric can by dyed at one time A JigPiece Dying Open width of fabric is pulled through an open dye vat until desired shade is achieved Suitable for fairly close weave fabrics B PadPiece Dying A continuous dyeing system that uses a dye solution that is applied by a padder or mangle C WinchPiece Dyeing Little tension is introduced on fabric that is processed in rope form This is suitable for lightweight and loosely woven and knit fabrics D JetPiece Dying Uses the most advance machinery and is suitable for fabrics prone to felting when subjected to lengthy dye cycle It uses high speed in comparison to the other processes and can only be used on tough fabrics D Color Effect in Blended Fabric 1 Union Dyeing Adding dye to fabrics that have two bers with different dyeing characteristics to achieve a solidcolored fabric by using a dye bath that contains several dyes capable of dyeing all the bers to the same hue Cross Dyeing Adding dye to blend and mixture fabrics to achieve multicolored fabric like heathers stripes checks and plaids by using a dye formulation that has different colored dyes and each has an af nity for a different ber ToneonTone Adding dye to blend mixture fabrics to achieve two or more shades of the same hue This is achieved for fabrics with same generic group bers but different af nity Reserve Dyeing Leaving bers or yarns undyed while dyeing the others in blend mixture fabrics by using dyes that have an af nity for the bers to be colored but not for the bers to be left white ComputerIniection Dyeing Applying aqueous dye solution the surface of carpet or tufted fabric through a series of microjet arranged transversely across and above the textile to be dyed Garment Dyeing Adding colorant to garments or products usually to obtain a solid color Batik Dyeing Applying wax by hand to white fabric so that the fabric will resist dyes in the waxed areas when immersed in a dye bath ShapedResist Dyeing Dyeing fabric that have folded crumpled stitched plaited plucked or twisted and secured in a number of ways such as binding and knotting kat Applying a resist like wax or clay to yarns and dyeing them so the dye cannot penetrate the areas the resist is applied 2 Printed Textiles D Printed Textiles Have designs resulting from colorant application usually pigments rather than dyes and other substances to localized areas on fabricyarn surfaces Printed fabric includes Print Pattern the Print Type and the Print Process While it has no waste production issues it has low ef ciency 1 Print Designs can be grouped into Four Categories A Realistic Naturalistic Designs Depicting real objects animals humans plants etc B Stylized Designs Exaggerated or simpli ed objects using unnatural color and proportions C Geometric Designs Created through geometric forms D Abstract Designs Having little or no reference to real objects often geometric in form but not as rigid 2 Printed Types Indicates whether the fabric or yarns were printed how many sides of the fabric were printed what substance was applied and whether the textiles has both dyed and printed also clarityvibrancy of color and pattern edge darkness of background A Application Prints Design has been printed over a white fabric so it has a white background with colored motifs B Dverprints Design has been printed over a previously dyed fabric so colored background is the same depth of shade on the fabric face and the back C Blotch Prints Background and motif have been printed onto a fabric The background and motif colors are deeper in shade on the face than on the back D Discharge Prints These have a dark background in the same depth of shade on the face and the back with widely spaced motifsWith the application of discharge paste it can have a white discharge the white motif appears on the face and back or a colored discharge where the motif is usually lled with vibrant colors and the motif area on the fabric back is nearly white The process is dye then print then wash E Resist Prints Characterized by white designs and a dyed background or by a colored design and a dyed background A raw white material is applied with a reservation agent often with wax which is hydrophobic and then dyed The process is print dye then wash F Warp Prints Hazyedged motifs where the lling yarns are of solid color but the warp yarns vary in color along its length G Duplex Register Prints Fabrics that can be printed on both sides H Flock Prints A compound fabric where the motif is composed of short lengths of white or colored ber standing upright on the ber surface It is only applied to localized areas on the fabric BurnOut Etched Prints Transparent and opaque areas are present on the fabric forming the motif and background This can be achieved by creating blends the most common cotton and polyester and more speci cally intimate blends the two bers are mixed homogeneously If the blend is cotton polyester H2304 Sulfuric Acid could be applied to remove the cotton and retain the polyester 3 Printing Process Methods using colorant paste adhesive resist or other substances onto yarnfabric surfaces It determines the size of the design repeat the neness of detail and the number of colors A Roller Printing A method of applying print paste to yarn or fabric by transferring it from the engraved areas of metal rollers to the textile B Flatbed Screen Printing A method of applying print paste to yarn or fabric by forcing it through open untreated portions of a at screen to the textile C Rotary Screen Printing Method of applying print paste to yarnfabric by forcing it from the interior of a cylindrical screen to the textile D HeatTransfer Printing Method of transferring dye from preprinted paper to fabric composed of polyester or thermoplastic bers by placing the paper on fabric surface and heating it to allow the dyes to sublime This printing is most applicable to knits These fabrics should not be ironed at a high temperature because the dye can turn to gas E Digital InkJet Printing The most recent printing developments that facilitate the printing of extremely delicate fabrics and pile fabrics because there is no contact between the fabric and the printer the patterns can be made and transmitted as electronic data


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