Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Wischmann on Friday January 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 143 views.
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Date Created: 01/30/15
31 A De nition of Culture 01262015 encompasses the ideas values practices and material objects that allow a group of people to carry out their collective lives in relative order and harmony Symbols vary depending on whether or not the person is involved with that culture Culture is affected by internal and external changes to the group average age of the population within that group likely to alter a group s culture signi cantly Values 0 the general and abstract standards de ning what a group or society as a whole considers desirable right or important 0 Express ideals of everything from a group to an entire society Norms o informal rules that guide what people do and how they live 0 Many are informal norms that have been codi ed and enforced through institutions 0 Application of rewards positive sanctions or punishments negative sanctions when norms are accepted or violated o F norms that are relatively unimportant Ex texting during lecture isn t enforced o more important norms whose violation is likely to be met with severe negative sanctions Ex cheating on a nal exam Material Culture 0 encompasses all of the artifacts that are re ections or manifestations of culture Symbolic Culture and Language 0 aspects of culture that exist in nonmaterial forms 0 Ex values and norms Language allows for storage and development of culture l Ideal and Real Culture 0 norms and values indicating what members of a society should believe in and do 0 people actually think and do in their everyday lives lll Ideology set of shared beliefs that explains the social world and guides people s actions IV Subcultures involve groups of people who accept much of the dominant culture but are set apart from it by one or more culturally signi cant characteristics 0 Ex LGBTQ community golfers Mac people V Countercultures groups that not only differ from the dominant culture but whose norms and values may be incompatible with those of the dominant culture 0 May consciously and overtly act in opposition to the dominant culture 0 Ex KKK hippies computer hackers Vl Culture Wars 0 con icts pitting a subculture or counterculture against a dominant culture 0 Sometimes lead to the disruption of social economic and political status quo i ldentity Politics use of a minority group s power to strengthen the position of the cultural group with which it identi es The goal is to create a true multicultural society that accepts minorities for who they are ii Cultural Relativism and Ethnocentrism o idea that aspects of culture such as norms and values need to be understood within the context of a person s own culture and that there are no universally accepted norms and values 0 No way to say one set of norms and values is better or more correct than another 0 belief that the norms values traditions and symbolic aspects of one s own culture are better than others Global Culture 0 imposition of one dominant culture on other cultures 0 Many believe that this affects global culture the most 0 Americanization VII VIII 0 an aversion to America in general as well as to the in uence of its culture abroad 0 cultural phenomena combining inputs and impositions from other cultures with local realities Consumer Culture 0 core ideas and material objects relate to consumption in which the core ideas and material objects relate to consumption and in which consumption is a primary source of meaning in life Started with the rise of large expositions world s fairs departments stores etc in France Children used to not be considered as able to make consumption choices until mid 19th century Higher education is increasingly characterized by consumer culture Internet has become a key site of consumption radically transforming mass media messages 0 Form of social protest aimed at revealing underlying realities of which consumers may be unaware 0 Hope to change behaviors of consumers 0 Ex Joe Chemo instead ofJoe Camel 0 Show the hidden realities and goals of corporations Cyberculture an emerging online culture that has the characteristics of all culture including distinctive values and norms Openness knowledge sharing access Rooted in the knowledge sharing and continuous improvement Desirable behavior on th ethernet
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