Diversity I Notes Week 13
Diversity I Notes Week 13 210
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 12/04/15
Diversity of Life Notes Week 13 Angiosperms Diversity Evolution and Systematics Amborella most archaic extant angiosperms The only species in Amborellaceae Amborellales ex Amborella trichopoda Very restricted range New Caledonia forests no economic use but huge evolutionary importance woody angiosperm Without vessels stamens undifferentiated into anther and laments unfused stigmatic ridges closed by secretion Nymphaeaceae Water Lily Family Next Evolutionary Step more diverse 70 species globally distributed in aquatic habitats high evolutionary importance angiosperms that have vessels for water transport some species have undifferentiated anthers and stamens Secondary chemistry chemicals found in plant tissue but don t aid in its metabolism Magnoliids economic importance ex Piper nigrum Liriodendron tulipfera Aristolochiaceae Dutchman s pipe Family Synapomorphy leaves with pellucid dots with ethereal oils Aristolochia ower characteristics No petals fused carpels 6 inferior ovary stamens not differentiated 12 adnate to style polination by ies easy to get it really tough to get out Eudicots most owering plants Synapomorphies anthers laments are differentiated tricolpate pollen slits in pollen grains help with germination of pollen Basal Eudicots evolutionary simple Ranuculaceae Buttercup Family Ex Catha paustris marsh marigold Often have no petals numerous stamens often many distinct carpels very diverse 2000 species Core Eudicots more complex Cactaceae Cactus Family Ex Saguaro cactus Succulents spines many tepals stamens 3 to several carpels inferior ovary Crassulaceae Stonecrop Family CAM adaptation for arid habitats stomates open at night for C02 uptake and C xing in malic acid stored in vacuoles in succulent leaves photosynthetic light reactions with closed stomates during the day to minimize water loss Euphorbiaceae Spurge Family Heavea brasliensis rubber tree used as l Cyathium false ower composed of sin ower and many staminate owers bracts Fabaceae Ledume family Ex peanuts soybeans 3rd largest Angiosperm family 2nol largest in economic importance Legume ower imbricate with upper petal outmost 39 basal petals connate or coherent at apex stamens are diadelphous united by laments i 39 Rosaceae Rose familv Perianth outer part of ower SF stamens numerous hypanthium oral cup site from which sepals pra lhi L silique seedpod with septa and replum part that petals and stamens form Brassicaceae Mustard familv cauli ower kale Brussel sprouts Flower and Fruit Petas form cross connects seed to the frame of the pod ltetradynamous stamens 6 stamens and 2 are shorter than the other 4 Asteraceae Aster familv very diverse 23000 species 1 rank among plant families artichoke sun ower lettuce Pappus Calyx and Fruit Monocots Liliaceae Lily and lridaceae Iris Orchidaceae Orchid Familv 19500 species ranks 2 among plant families orchid labellum adapted to speci c pollinators Poaceae Grass Family 10000 species ranks 4 in species richness wheat rice corn and sugarcane Dominates prairies and steppes nearly 1 ofEarth s vegetation provides humans 50 of calories Flower adapted to wind pollination Fruit small indehiscent fruit with thin wall fused to a single point after this DE Dovciak ran out of time but this is the last of the information from his slides Commelinoid Monocots Grass Relatives Cyperaceae Sedge family Bromeliads Poales Bromeliaceae Angiosperms epiphytes growing on otherpants Other Important Monocots Arecales Arecaceae Palm 12315 Woody Angiosperms Worldwide Focuses on evolutionary relationships Dr Leopold was giving us a base of information to build off of so here are the supplemental pieces he talked about during lecture Everything else is in your hand out from the start ofcass Magnoliales most primitive order Magnoliaceae Magnolia Mrysticaceae Myristica fragrans Magnolia grand ora southern magnolia evergreen used in a lot of ornamentals Myristica frangrans nutmeg essential ingredient for pumpkin pie Ranunculaes Berberidaceae Berberis common barberry one of the most exotic invasive plants Urticales Moraceae and Ulmaceae Ficus aurea strangler g famous for aerial roots and shoots surrounds entire plant covers and takes it down Ficus bengaensis banyan found in India Morus aba white mulberry not highly invasive prefers more urban based environments Umus parvifoia Chinese elm doesn t get Dutch elm disease or Dutch yellows Fagales Fagaceae and Betulaceae Coryus avelana hazelnut native to Europe Frangelico Ouercus suber cork oak found in Spain Portugal cork is collected Maogifem foalfoo mango Piamcfa vars pistachio Azad achf E Ream m WEI1 e l uf 3939 9 Q Larrea o idemai a creosote bush King Colony ILTDD years old 1 4 i l 39 k r l l l W m u x 3L1 1 mg i quot7 391 1 win 1 quot if quotw 7 SA car ploronordea Norway maple Amer polmomm Japanese maple quot f a l l g n E 5 quot I V 1 I V V I UK 7 1 a I gt if x w i A 393quot m Alfann39ms of saamo Eroe of hoaven alv ln N we U r Lamiales four families La the Boraginacaaag 39 orbeaaoaaa Tectono granola Lamiaooao and Lemoacoae Tacrono granola teak p b quotx in 9w 3 l w a 3 owl Samoanalos Loganlwaooaa chhnos Gemtianacoae Sacoifoliaoeaa Alpooynamasnaaa and Asclepiadacoae Soychaos oarvomich songs of airyquotalanine Soychaoa roxyfaro source of carame 5 HEW Eggs CHquot Him9b r Li a3 Rubialos Rubiaoeao Cimkoaoa Co aa and Theligooaooao C39f chooa quinine 53 5 gm h Co ao coffee 39 l a I39 r fth 39n V Ni L a l 39 quot if L a I Dipsaoalos Caprifoliaoaae LoafCE39m Sombuoua Viburnum Valoriallagmaaa Dipsaoaoeao and Adoxaoeae Lom cerojoponfco Japanese honeysuckle Lonicero moook Amm honeysuckle r x l E 39 6239quotquot x VT 7 jf E m 13 law 1 391 39Ufg J c 73x j LEE if i Sorophu larialoa Boddloialso216a Dleaoeae olive mez39auag Olga Syrtiago Soroph ulariaroaaea Grlolzmlla39rlanaeaaa Myoporaooae Drobanchaooao broomrapo Gesnariaoeao Aoaothaooae Padaliaoeae Bignoniaooae Corolpox Mondoaciaooao and Lentibulariaooao bladdorwort Olga auropoao olive il l Syringo valgaria common lilac A troolike disoot lacking wood Carnegiea gigomgaa Saguaro ifaa39 taoeatEa Caryophyllalea Additional trees that are mooocots therefore don t produce wood Phoenix docgil am data palm SEl Cocoa auci ara coconut palm b 1 Elaefs qafaaamis African oil palm H 7L 1 5i 3 3 I l Sobafpolmerm cabbage palmetto 392 Yucca brevgfoffo losl1 uatroe A 2 CA Cellastrales up in 12 families including Celastraceae lIippncrateaceae Aquifcliaceae Hex and lcacinaceae and about 1000 species D Il39ex aanfoiinm English liclly Rhianphnrales Rhichlicraceae Raise 39 a with abnut 100 species distributed throughout trnpical regions Rh r znphera mangle red mangrove Apiales Apiaceae about 33000 species and Araliaceae altcut 700 species Miamnales Rhamnaceae 900 species Rita 39 Vitaceae 700 species WM and Leeaceae 70 Species Rhnmnus eazriiarnca a European bucr v 39 g Vins w nifem Eurepean grapevine Viris inmbrnsca fun grapevine Ccnccrd jl Fa bales legumes often considered a single family Leguniincsae or Fabaceae er divided into three families About l3 0 00 species in about 650 genera third largest family of angicspenns exceeded only by the Asteraceae aster ctr sunflower family and Orchidaceae orchid family Examples Catatonia Preaep39isg Carats Wisteria Tamarindas indicas tam arind Daibergi a 39 rcsewcnd Ceraronin siliqaab Prompts e mesqui 39 Garcia cana39densis eastern redbud Wisteria sinensis Chinese Wisteria Robinin pseudcncaeia black lccust Eucalyptus Psidinm Eucalyptus eucalyptu39 Psidinm guajavn apple guess a Meialeucn quinquenervia melaleuca Malpighiales 32 to 42 families including Erythrnxylcnaceae Erythroxylnnl and l ili species E rythrnxyinn coca coca Euphcrbiales typically includes one family the Euphcrbiaceae spurge one of the larger families cf diccts with 1500 species in 275 genera H Vernicia Haven bmsr fiensis rubber tree 7 Sepiam sebi em Chinese t retiree lernfeiaferdii ing nil train Resales about 24 families including Hydrangeaceae Grcssulariaceae Crassulaceae and Rcsaceae with about 32 l genera and 6700 species Mnlas Pyrns Prunes Ri bes Rena Hydrangea Hydrangea hydrangea Ribes Ctl 39 li guins ebeny I Mains domestics 5 apple Mains crabapple 5 ip r E Prunes caresses sour cherry Primes domesrien Prunes persteer peach Primes daichis almond Pmnm E ii 7 V 39 ye ioenais chhino and other cultivars 39 39 339 quot39 l Pyrite comments European pear Pyrite caiiezyana Gallery pear Eradf nrd j In spill 231 r 17 Sapuidale 15 families about 500 genera and 620 U species including Sapindaceae with 2 000 s ecies39 Aescnlns Litehi R39utaceae with 1700 species Cinrns Anacardiaceae with 650 species ijAnaegrdii fang 391p Pisracia Burseraceae with 600 species Meliaceae with 575 spe I 39 A zadi39ineh i e Jun 5 5535 32ng Egg1th 270 species Larren Aceraceae With 200 species Aerer d Sirnarculiaceae with lS U Aescai39as ii ippeeasrnnnm a harsecliestn ut r i racer chinenais lycliee 39 Citrate x smensis orange Citrus in Juana lemnn Cirrus x paradisi Cirrus narrmr ifoiia key lime Anacardium occidentale cashew grapefruit Cirrus x retailing Persian lirne P olvgonales Pclygonaceae the buckwheat or deck family with about 30 to 40 genera and about l Dl species mostly herbs anal some trees shrubs and vines Plumbaginales Plumbaginaceae the leadwort family mostly perennial herbs and shrub species Violales 9 to 24 families small trees herbs and vines Caricapapaya Carma papaya papaya Dillaniales Dilleniaceae and P aeoniaceae peony family The 350 species of Dilleniaceae are tropical and subtropical woody Theales 18 families of which Clusiaceae mangosteen family Theaceae tea family Camellia sincnsis Camellia japomca and Di pterccarpaceae meranti family are the largest Camelliajapam ca Japanese camellia Camellia siaeasrs tea Malvales Sterculiaceae cacao family Cola Theobroma cacao Bombaceae kapok tree familyAdaasoma Csiba peritaaalra Malvaceae mallow family Elaeocarpaceae and Tillaceae Trista mostly shrub and tree species Theobroma caeaa cocoa tree Cola vara kola Aa ahsaaia gra aidi eri baobab Ceiha pentana i a a kapok a Tilia cardata littleleaf linden Lecythidales Lecythiclaceae brazil nut family about 400 tropical species Berthalletia excels39a 1 Brazil nut i Millea 5s Salicales Salicaceae 350 species rillow family 2 genera Salim willows and Reptiles poplars Papalas aigra black cottonwood 7 Sale matsaa39aaa T ortuosaquot cork 39 willow Salts babylom ca weeping willow SQle diacolar F pu ssy willow Sale herbacea tlwarf willow Ericales 8 families mostly shrubs and small trees including Lecythidaceae Berthalleiia Ericaceae heath family 3500 species Gaylassacia Rhododeiidran Vacciniam and Epacriclaceae the epacris family 400 species Rlioalaa eim mn r rhoclodendton Rhododendron aaalea Ebenales Sapotaceae Ebenaceae the ebony family Diaspyros Styracaceae the store s family assocarpaceae and Symplocaceae the sweetleaf family 39 1 L700 species about 800 in Sapotaceae Diospyros ebeaam ebony Diospyras Virginians persimmo 39 i Primulales Theophrastaceae 10EI species Myrsinaceae lU O species and P rimulaceae 800 species Zapperales 5 families 42 genera and 4800 species herbs shrubs small trees and lianas Capparis spi aosa Capparis spfacsa caper bush V Proteales Elaeagnaceae about 50 species of trees and shrubs and Proteaceae 75 genera more than 1000 tropical and subtropical woody evergreens Macadamia Macadamia macadamia Cornales least 3 families mcluclin 39 39C Camus kaasa Chinese dogwood est the Cornaceae and fewer than 150 species Santalales ill families and abo t Santalam albeit sandalwood 39 Arceu tabiam dwarf mistletoe Pharaa39enalroa a leafy mistletoe D DUquot species most parasitic Arceathobiam Pharaa aachop Diwalii3 r r lambth Woody Angiosperms Le a dieot that exhibits a growth pattern of seeondary tissue of wood so palms and other monocots are excluded here 39Worldwide 39 39 39 quot Orders of Anglosrjerms with Signi cant Number of Woody Species Magh ol ialesj generally regarded as including the most primitive angiosperms contains ll families lSl enera arid aboatlDSD species all are woody shrubs climbers or trees a it a I g l 5 Families Winteraoeae Degenerlaceae Himahtandraeeae Eopomatiaoeae Austrobailevaeeae Magnoliaeeae Magnolia Laetor idaeeaej Armoriaeeae 39 l istieaeeae Myrirriea ogrraea and Carrellaeeae g i Magnolia grandi om southern magnoli M 7 n l i h irisrieo iogmns m nutmeg quot 1 7 7 quot 139 77 t v 39 Laiurales families between anti 939 genera arid about 23600 speeles all are treesg shrubs or woody vines V amilies Amborellaeeae Trimemaeeae Mommiaeeae Gomfortegaleeaea Calyeanthaeeaet Idiospermaoeae I I I 3 I 1 7 r s I quot77 if I Lauraeeae Crmiomomum eomphor a Comomomum verumt Looms nobr39irs Parseo amerieona Sosao os and Hemaocliaeeae 7 7 7 a H V hmomorrmm oomphom eamphor tree Cirmamomam 39ve rum Ceylon eirmamon LHHF HS metre bay laurel Perseo39 americona avocado Sassq 39as of io um e Sassafras Raouneulales 3 families 167 genera and about 3200 species annual and pereimlal herbs herbaceous or woody Vines shrubs and a few small treesl 7 7 Families Ranuneolaeeae Cireaeasteraeeae Berbericlaeeae Berherr s Mahatma Sargeritocloxaeeae Lardizabalaeeae lvflerlispermaeeaea Ceriariaeeae and Safbiaoeae I Berberis vulgaris a common barberrn Urtieales Barbeyaeeae Cannabaeeae Ceeropiaeeae Moraeeae Artoeowua o lrfi ist Ficus illIOFMS Ulmaeeae elm family Uim39m and 39Urtieaeeae approximately 2200 to 2300 species total Ariacorpus atiii s breadfmit an Ficus carriers gt Ficus our quot stranglerFieua beagr ioi errsis berry 1 Moms oth white molbe quot Uimus pow elio Chinese elmn Fagales about 13151 species total in the Balahopaoeaeg Betulaeeae the birch family Crawlers and Fagaeeae the beech family jQHEFCHS C astuaneo Faquot Norhof gw Condos ovellona 2 77 39 or hazelnut a D Quereus saber F eor a Quareus virginiona live oak Ahgel oak SC Cosionea saliva E swhestriiit Castorreg demote F American chesmua Fogas armorial European beech Norhofogus south em beech 39Casuarinales Casoarinaeeae with 4 genera Gymnostoma Ceuthostomo Casuoirina and Allocasuorioo with 96 species Casuarina equisei ifolia horsetail pine a Caryop liyllales 12 families including Caetaeeae Cheoopocliaeeae Amaranthaeeae Caryophyllaeeaej and Tamarieaeeae Tamorix a Tomorixf tamarisk salteedar lilamamelldales Platanaeeae plane tree Platforms Cereidiphyllaeeaej Haitiamelidaeeae witch hazel Homemmlis Liqoiidombar Eupteleaoe cl Myrothamoaeeae Plateaus a ooerifolio Loridon planetregd Li qriio om bor syrrocy lua swetgum luglahdalesz Rhoipteleaceae and andaeeae Jugioes and Corye Jugl39oris regio English Walnut 39 39 Creme iilirioensis sweet pecan