Islamic Empires II, scientific revolution and the enlightenment nov 30-dec 4
Islamic Empires II, scientific revolution and the enlightenment nov 30-dec 4 HIST 1010 - 001
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Islamic Empires, II I. The Safavids A. Rise of empire B. Religion C. Commerce D. Arts E. Conflicts with Ottomans i. Sufism ii. Mysticism iii. Shi’ites iv. Sunnis v. Ali vi. Mullahs vii. Ismail viii. Chaldiran ix. Abbas the Great The Safavids came to Iran which was the heart of their empire. They emerged to construct the empire that was a ruling dynasty. They were very motivated religiously and were Shi’ite Muslims; their faith was strengthened by Sufism and mystics. These put the family on a new course to reform and revitalize Islam in their part of the world. In the process of trying to reform Islam they come up against the Islamic empire. The Ottomans were Sunni Muslim. There is competition for turf. As the Safavid family tried to reform this area, they clashed with the Ottomans; it started small scale but it became bigger and ultimately ongoing. In 1501 they take a city (Tabriz) and claim it, Ismail took it over. Ismail was the founder of the Safavid dynasty and its empire. They come to build this empire as a result of conflicts by reformism by infusing it with Sufi mysticism. (Shi’ites support Ali and believe he’s the rightful successor of Muhammad as a caliph and the Sunnis believe otherwise). The state sponsored Shi’ite Islam and the local mullahs (local mosque leader and prayer leader) were financed by the government. The education for children was laid out by the government so there is a close relation between religion and state. The identity of this empire (modern Iran) became very close with Shi’ite Muslim which sets them apart because most are Sunnis. Under the Safavids rulers, the Iranian plateau becomes Shi’ite and they become more important economically. The Arabs played a huge role in emerging global economy. Safavid emperor was a Shah named Abbas the Great because he wanted them to be a commercial superpower. He wanted to trade with Europeans and did. He tried to develop the infrastructure of the economy and for goods to flow more freely which meant building roads, safe houses and rest stops along the way. He encouraged the production of goods to sell abroad which was high quality and luxury goods. In particular, this meant supporting textile and roads. What people wanted was silk textiles and rugs which were handmade and expensive, especially the rugs. This art and industry was the backbone of their economy. Abbas was also a patron of architecture such as mosques. The empire emerges in 1501 but will come to an end in 18th century due to conflicts with the Ottomans. This hurt the Ottomans as well. They continued to fight in the background and this drains both empires of precious resources and really disables Safavid government. The Ottomans tended to have the advantage due to technology. In 1514, they meet at the Battle of Calderon which was a huge Safavid success and got turf and religious gain. Ottomans showed up with guns and light cannons while the Safavids showed up with bow and arrow so many conflicts where dominated by the Ottomans. Main Points: This is an Islamic Empire with Iran at its heart. The people are Shi’ite Muslim and heavily influenced by Sufism and mysticism. They wanted to reform and revitalize Islam in their part if the world. During expansion they clashed with Sunni Ottomans and started an ongoing battle. Ismail is the founder of the Safavid Dynasty. They built off of Sufi mysticism which believes in favor of Ali being the successor to Mahammad. Mullahs are local mosque and prayer leaders. Iran is set apart uniquely because of how together the government and Shi’ite religion are (most are Sunni). They played a huge role in the global economy and trade. Abbas the Great is a Safavid emperor who worked towards and wanted to be a commercial superpower. He did a lot of infrastructure to make trade easier like roads and rest stops. He encouraged the creation of high quality luxury goods to trade with Europe and they are most known for their rugs. The fighting with the Ottomans drained all resources on both sides but Ottomans had a technological advantage. One Safavid success was at the Battle of Calderon in which they got turf and religious gain. II. The Mughal Empire A. Rise B. Administration C. Social policies D. Religion E. Architecture i. Babur ii. Akbar iii. Sati iv. Purdah v. Chinghis Khan vi. Divine Faith vii. Delhi viii. Taj Mahal The founder was Babur from India and descendent of Chinghis Khan. He launches an invasion to southeast India and begins to establish himself down there. They are Islam but not the first Islam. Babur brings a reintroduction of Islam to India. His grandson, Akbar, conquered the area militarily and this was easy because India wasn’t united. They come in and impose political unity on India. Akbar was the most important ruler of the dynasty in India. He sets up admin that defines it in India. The government was more modern and the way you got your job wasn’t by family or money, it was by talent (in his government). There were ministers in charge of many parts of government. This government is based off of ability and Akbar was a social reformer. He tried to make Indian society function better. Some things were constructing housing for the homeless in some urban areas. He was interested in the plight of women so he forbade child marriage and permitted remarriage for widows. Sati (upper caste custom of a widow of a man jumping into his funeral fire and burning her alive) was also done away with as much as possible. Many widows were forced into this and that’s what he wanted to stop. He himself directly intervened in some instances especially of young widows. Purdah (tradition of seclusion and failing of women) tried to undermine and eliminate this tradition and tried to stop it by going to city governments to have a few days for women to go out and shop in public. India is ¾ Hindu but there was a Muslim minority in North West and west India but this population does grow. Akbar was incredibly tolerant and even had Hindu wives. He invited people to come to court and talk about religion. He had people of all sorts of religions in his court. He encouraged people to talk about religious differences and issues. He also believed there was a way to bring Hindu and Islam together and he wanted to blend them. He attempts to synthesize the two into Divine Faith. Akbar became vegetarian and wanted to bring this new religion among his people but that failed. Under some of his successors, there were important architectural developments and treasures. In 17th century, the Taj Mahal was constructed which is known to some as the most beautiful building ever constructed send this was by emperor Jahan for a deceased wife. Ultimately the impact was spread of Islam and this was by merchants and Sufi mystics in Mughal and Safavid empires. Main Points: Babur founded the Mughal Empire and reintroduces Islam to India. Akbar is the grandson of Babur. He took over the area militarily which was hard due to the disunity of India but he ended up uniting India politically. He made the government more modern and focused on talent rather than class for jobs. He had minister in charge or parts of government and focused on social reform. He constructed housing for homeless, permitted remarriage for women, forbade Sati, tried to stop purdah and he was extremely tolerant. He was extremely interested in religion so he invited people of all religions to come and discuss them in his court. He wanted to combine Hindu and Islam to make Divine Faith but it failed. Shah Jahan was an emperor of the empire and had a huge hand in architectural developments such as the Taj Mahal that he built for his dead wife. Scientific Revolution I. Geocentric cosmology A. Aristotle B. Ptolemy i. Finite university ii. Lunar vs sublunar iii. Crystalline spheres iv. Epicycle th th In the 16 and 17 century Europe experiences a science revolution encompassing all of the sciences but most importantly, astronomy and physics. There are major changes in how we see earth, our place in the universe, etc. It was so important because in the west, our views of cosmology (cosmos and physics) before this were broad. Aristotle believed the world was earth centered so the earth is at the center of the universe and everything revolved around the stationary earth. He also believed the universe was finite, not infinite. In his mind there was a distinction between lunar and sublunar regions (lunar = heavens (everything past atmosphere), sublunar=earth and its atmosphere). Sublunar is very imperfect unlike the lunar region. Aristotle believed the last of the crystalized spheres (his version of how the universe was organized) carried the stars and past that was God and the angels which kept the universe ticking and moving constantly. He devised a system of physics for the universe. On earth, Aristotle believed motion was caused by the four elements in the sublunary region (earth, air, fire, and water). He thought these were all mixed up and wanted to get back to their natural resting place (if you drop a rock it goes to the ground aka it’s trying to get the center of earth where it is from). Ptolemy struggled to make things more accurate. He devised the epicycle to explain retrograde motion (when planets beyond earth travel more slowly and when we catch up there is the appearance they’re going backwards) and he wanted his calculations to be more accurate. The epicycle explains that there are deviations beyond the planetary path so he figured there were loops in the circle which made his calculations more accurate. This sets off the scientific revolution. Main Points: The Scientific revolution’s most important sciences were astronomy and physics. Cosmology was very broad at this time and focused on a religion. Aristotle believed in a geocentric universe so everything revolved around Earth. There were crystal spheres around earth and beyond that was God and angel who controlled the universe. To Aristotle there was lunar (heavens=perfect) and sublunar (earth and atmosphere=imperfect). He also believed that all elements on earth are trying to get to their natural resting place so that’s why things are so crazy and random on earth. Ptolemy came up with the epicycle to make things for accurate in measuring planet movement so he added loops in his circle cycle to make it more accurate and it helped with his math. This started the scientific revolution. II. Heliocentric A. Copernicus B. Tycho Brahe C. Kepler D. Galileo E. Newtonian synthesis i. Ellipse ii. Starry Messenger iii. Pope Urban VIII iv. Dialogue v. Principia vi. Gravity vii. Intertia Copernicus comes up with the heliocentric version. Astronomers layered on so many epicycles on epicycles that it doesn’t make sense to him and he wants to fix it. He read about Aristarchus’s heliocentric theory. This eliminated the need of most of the epicycles if you switch the earth and sun. Other scientists need to prove this theory to be right. The Catholic Church, Protestants, etc. objected this theory because it means the earth and human kind aren’t the focus of the universe and God’s creation. In the science community there is reluctance because it changes literally everything they know and it’s a revolution. What really stood in the way of science community acceptance is the system of physics they had of Aristotle didn’t work in this universe (the four elements going to their resting place). Tycho Brahe is a royal astronomer by Denmark in a state of the art observatory which is where he collected the most amazing data every collected before telescope. Based on this, he came up with his own cosmology. His data was so detailed and accurate that it would be used by his assistant, Kepler, who is a mathematician. He discerns three major patterns of planetary motion and they are the missing physics. First, he made the change to elliptical path to eliminate the need for epicycles. The second was they travel at different speed on the orbital path so their velocity changes which depends on where they are on the path. The third law was the distance of the sun affects their speed. Galileo uses a telescope to see more of the heavens. He wrote the Starry Messenger. In this he saw sun spots, the surface of the moon (the imperfections), the phases of Venus, the rings of Saturn, and four of Jupiter’s moons. Jupiter’s moons were a huge deal because they revolve around it at the same time it moved around the sun. All these things undermined what was left of the authority of Aristotle. There are imperfections on the moon and sun so this gets rid of lunar vs sublunar. Pope Urban VIII was interested in the science. A cardinal came and said he had to be careful and make everything a hypothesis. The Dialogue was written later and in this he used characters in a story to play it safe but he made Aristotle’s character basically an idiot and he made another which was the Pope and had verbatim lines from the papacy. Urban was very smart and educated in the sciences but he had to support the church not Copernicus/Galileo because they aren’t proven. Galileo was brought in and forced to recant what he has studied and he did and then was on house arrest forever. Galileo’s greatest achievements were his experiments. He did a series of experiments on mechanics/motion on earth and how it happens. One experiment was using rolling bodies down inclined planes; he rolls these down and notices that unless another force acts upon it, they will travel infinitely in a straight line on the same path. Second, the force that sets the bodies in motion, they wouldn’t stop and they would accelerate aka a body will stay in motion in one direction unless acted upon by another force and if the initial is still applied, it will accelerate. The other was using falling experiments so if you drop two things no matter the weight, they will reach the ground at the same time. Newton brings together the works of the great scientists. Newton discovered that gravity was what kept the planets going the way they are going. He used Kepler’s and Galileo’s works to figure this out. Gravity and inertia keep everything going. Newton published something and made the math and law to prove everything; this was the end of the scientific revolution. Main Points: Copernicus comes up with the heliocentric (sun centered) version of the universe. There were so many epicycles in the geocentric theory so he wanted to fix it for it naturally should be much more orderly so he switched the sun and earth and it worked. Religious institutions opposed because it undermined humankind as being the center of God’s creation. Tycho Brahe was set up in a state of the art observatory enlisted by Denmark where he got the most accurate views and data before a telescope. His assistant, Kepler, a mathematician, used his accurate data to figure out planetary motion. Kepler’s 3 laws: 1. made the paths ellipses, 2. they travel at different speeds in different places so velocity changes, 3. Speed changes the closer they are to the sun. Kepler wrote the Starry Messenger which basically showed that the cosmos were imperfect and undermined Aristotle and his lunar v sublunar theory. Galileo used a telescope to see more of the universe and wrote the Dialogue which made the Pope and Aristotle seem dumb. Pope Urban VIII was very educated and loved science but he had to stick up for his institution so he put Galileo on forever house arrest due to publishing non-proven work about the universe that defied the church beliefs. Galileo’s best works were his experiments. He rolled a ball down an inclined plane and realized 1. It wouldn’t stop unless acted upon by a force and 2. It would speed up if acted upon continuously by the initial force. The other was dropping different objects and realizing they reached the ground at the same time. Newton used Kepler’s and Galileo’s works to discover gravity and inertia which he had the math to prove it. The enlightenment th I. 17 C Roots A. Newton and mechanical universe B. Overthrow of authorities and idea of progress C. John Locke i. Gravity and inertia ii. State of nature iii. Natural rights iv. Tabula rasa The enlightenment started in France which will be the capital to it but it’s important all over. This was an intellectual, philosophical, and reformist movement. The roots th to this are in the 17 century when Newton came up with gravity and inertia which means the universe is mechanical in nature. The universe is like a giant mechanical clock. This is the idea that it runs according to natural laws that can be understood by the human intellect as a result of understanding scientific progress. By finishing the scientific revolution, science becomes a sort of god. Overthrow of authorities and idea of progress is all structured by reason. Before this, scientists kept dusting off old books and authorities of the people who wrote of science as the basis of science. When you start with free speculation and reason, the possibilities are endless so people stopped going to authorities as bases of knowledge. Progress is now possible and the idea that it’s now limitless is new. John Locke, a 17 century Englishman, was part of the foundation of the enlightenment and American constitution. He tried to argue for the best kind of government and that government’s power is not unlimited. He argued to limit the power of government and he wrote a lot on politics and similar things. Locke is the first to think and express freely about limiting power without going to an authority. He believed in state of nature in that there was at a time, no governments, he argued rationally and tried to construct a government and he believed in natural rights in the state of nature. Natural rights are not very existent where he is right now so this is a very big and important idea. He argued that there are rights to life, liberty, and property. He argued the purpose of government is to protect the rights of its people, the natural rights. He argued that there was a contract that people created government and they were supposed to protect the rights of its people. He wrote of the human intellects and human understanding where he wrote of Tabula rasa which is blank slate. The theory before Locke is that people come into the world smart or dumb but he argued that we come in with blank slates and experiences make us smarter, dumber, etc. so we are a product of environment. Main Points: The Enlightenment began in France and it was an intellectual, philosophical and reformist movement. This sparked after Newton discovered gravity and inertia which meant the universe is mechanical in nature. This also means its natural law and can be understood by human intellect. Reason is a big deal because it starts to allow thinking freely without the use of authorities or prior writings. John Locke argued for the best kind of government and how government control is not unlimited so he argued to limit control. He is the first to think and speak freely of limiting control without going to an authority first. He believed in natural rights in the state of nature and that the government should only be a thing to help protect the right of its people and do as the people say. His perfect government involved complete participation of everybody. State of nature is the belief/idea by Locke that at one point there was no government and natural rights are the belief/idea by Locke that we naturally have rights to life, liberty, and prosperity. Tabula rasa is blank slate. He believed people are born with a blank slate and are a result of environment and experiences II. Ideas of Enlightenment A. Natural laws B. Reason C. Progress The universe is governed by natural laws and gravity and inertia are embraced during the enlightenment. The economy also clicks into natural law. The enlightenment is the age of reason. They come to believe that we have the ability to understand the universe and natural laws by applying reason and everything should be applied by reason and not by tradition. If you apply reason, you get progress. Natural laws + reason = progress. III. Philosophes A. Voltaire B. Montesquieu C. Diderot i. Persian Letters ii. Encyclopedia iii. Anti-clericalism iv. Deism These were the people of the enlightenment. Voltaire is in earlier enlightenment and he is a reformer and reflects on the desire to reform France and western society he knew how unfair western civilization was. He was thrown into jail practicing free speech. He argued for social reform for treating all social groups the same and he was even more radical in religion. Voltaire is a deist (deism) which was popular among intellectuals at this time. Deism is the idea that god is the clock maker of the universe to run on its own like a clock. God set it in motion and stepped back to let it run on its own. God isn’t constantly intervening in the universe which was a big idea. Montesquieu wrote the Persian letters and he uses a Persian characters and he uses him to criticize traditional institutions and western society they don’t make sense and they aren’t rational. Diderot was the editor of the encyclopedia. He headed a massive collaborative efforts to bring the knowledge of everything into one place= the 17 volumes of the encyclopedia. This is to make knowledge accessible. This is part of reformism because people haven’t been exposed to this kind of knowledge so this was made to educate people or the “idiots” in the environment to fix the environment. Anti-clericalism refers to the hostility to the clergy and church (not anti-religion) the institution itself is criticized. IV. Economic Theory A. Physiocrats B. Adam Smith i. Laissez-faire Classical liberalism or physiocracy is the belief that government policy should not interfere with the operation of natural economic laws and that land is the source of all wealth. Adam Smith believed in supply and demand natural laws in the economy which is self-regulating and adjusts itself when needed. These are the first to say governments should stay out of economy and let it self-regulate. Laissez faire is like hands off; let it do its own thing. They also believed the individual should be free to pursue profit which contributes to the growth of the economy. The enlightenment produced a body of political theory that inspired revolution. V. Political theory A. Montesquieu B. Rousseau i. Spirit of Laws ii. Social Contract iii. General will Montesquieu wrote the spirit of laws which was huge for America. This is pondering which government would best protect the natural rights of individuals. England after the glorious revolution is the model he thought best because they had limited power and increased parliamentary power. He liked the separation of powers between executive and legislative branches and checks and balances. Rousseau wrote a work the Social Contract. He envisions more of a democracy and wanted to see a government in which people are governed by the general will of the people. He believed in hiring people to rule for the peoples will. He wanted to see everybody in society being involved in the political process. This isn’t majority rule because the problem with majority is it has to only be 51% so the other 49% is not represented. This is extremely idealistic. VI. Limited Enlightenment A. Abolitionism B. Women i. Rousseau ii. Toussaint L ‘Overture iii. Mary Wollstonecraft iv. Olympe de Gouges This is limited because women and slavery were not addressed and were left out except during alter enlightenment where slavery was brought up and how it is wrong (Rousseau). Toussaint L ‘Overture led a revolt in Haiti and was very educated and wanted to raise the issue. Mary Wollstonecraft and her counterpart Olympe de Gouges addressed how limited the issue of women was addressed.