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Dendrology California Forests

by: Jacob Erle

Dendrology California Forests 336

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Foreign Language > 336 > Dendrology California Forests
Jacob Erle
GPA 3.85

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Here are the lecture notes from Week 13 on tree species identified in California forests.
Dr. Donald J. Leopold
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Friday December 4, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 336 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Donald J. Leopold in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 58 views. For similar materials see Dendrology in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.

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Date Created: 12/04/15
Dendrology Notes Week 13 California (CA) Forests -famous for high botanical diversity; many endemics found in this state -most extreme physiography of any state (sea level to mountain ranges) -lost 90% of wetlands due to agricultural draining in the center of CA, save for vernal pools Some of the longest lived trees in the world (Pinus longeava) Tallest tree is coastal redwood (99.9% of timber comes from CA) – 360’ tall Largest organism in the world is giant sequoia; branches are 7’ in diameter *pA47 in workbook; 2 mountain ranges – High Sierra Nevada (east side) and Coastal range (closer to San Francisco) Note: digger pine is intolerant pioneer AND climax species of foothill zone Umbellularia californica California-laurel Lauraceae Lauraceae, famous family for its aromatics (not a true laurel) -100’ tall shrub and 2’ in diameter -found in upper CA of High Sierras -evergreen and angiosperm -leaves are whitish-blue on underside -moderately shade tolerant -fruit is small, round drupe -found in impenetrable thickets -Wood is one of the most valuable in North America – myrtle wood (cross in color between maple and walnut) -vigorous basal sprouter Pinus lambertiana sugar pine Pinaceae -tallest soft pine in the wood, 220’ tall and 7-8’ in diameter -moderately shade tolerant and drought tolerant -not a true CA endemic, but heart of range is in CA, montane forests -shorter needles, more compact than P. flexilis or P. strobus, which are shed every year -characteristic whorl of branches -often associated with P. ponderosa, which is even more drought tolerant -very valuable for timber -cone has 1 individual scale that is thumb-sized, terminal umbo See Nedlar grove -Abies concolor suppresses regeneration of Pinus lambertiana and Sequoiadendron giganteum, the most massive living thing in the world, as a result of fire suppression Pinus sabiniana Digger/gray pine Pinaceae -“Digger” refers to group of Native Americans who harvested this for food source -blue-gray foliage -true CA endemic -shade intolerant (open canopy), long needles (persistent), bark has coarse texture, and is very drought tolerant -massive cones, 10lbs, and heavily armed -thickest pine branches -roots and seeds are potential food source (see “Digger” Indians) -Surrounded by chaparral - shrub or heath plant community -mixed in with various CA oaks -dominates foothill zone, very dry area Abies magnifica California red fir Pinaceae -cuts into western Nevada and Oregon -largest fir in the world, up to 200’ tall -climax of subalpine zone, shade tolerant -blue-green glaucous foliage on newer growth, older growth more green -bark is distinct red-brown -cones are erect, found near top of tree -A. magnifica var. shastensis – Shasta red fir found in Northern CA; bracts are exerted (stick out past the cone) 12/3/15 Sequoia sempervirens coastal redwood Taxodiaceae -“sempervirens” = always green Sequoia – Native American, inventor of Cherokee alphabet -restricted to coastline from very S tip of Oregon (OR) to Monterey Bay, not a true endemic -about 90% of all trees found in range have been cut at least once. The remaining 10% have been preserved indefinitely -tallest tree in the world, 369’ tall, and can be 3,000 years old -evergreen, but is not cold tolerant (20°F will kill it); dawn redwood is more cold tolerant -very shade tolerant, pure stands tightly packed with trees of all ages highest volume of timber value per acre -efficient fall collector -may be the fastest-growing tree in all of North America -resembles hemlock from a distance, but foliage is thicker and tougher -riparian species, occurs upslope but not at the very top (top belongs to Pinus topenuada) -thick bark, though not often subjected to fire 101A, Avenue of the Giants, surrounded by huge redwoods; Eel River -has one of the smallest cones, very similar to dawn redwood -can stick your whole head in the furrows -“cathedral light” in natural stands -wood highly rot resistant, very high value for outdoor items (previously) and vases Dyerville Giant – 17.7’ DBH and 367’ tall -often associated with poison oak -it would take 5 loggers a week to cut down 1 tree, and 3 train loads to haul it out -can germinate on a wide range of substrates -can seed sprout and stump sprouts; one of the most prolific basal sprouters in the world, regenerates very quickly (not very typical of conifer species) -can even sprout along the bole in the logging yard -has been used to figure out previously climate conditions *setting for Return of the Jedi Sequoiadendron giganteum giant sequoia Taxodiaceae -Found in 75 groves/clumps on western slope of Sierras ,4,000 – 8,000ft in montane zone; groves can be 1 – 4,000 hectares in size, and often seen alongside open meadows See King’s Canyon, Sequoia national forest, Yosemite National Park -drought tolerant, cold tolerant, very shade intolerant -blue-gray scaly foliage, resembles junipers -cones have peltate scales with distinct indentations -younger has pyramidal form but older forms have uniform column shape -180’ above ground has 13’ diameter, branches are 7-8’ in diameter at the base;a picnic table could fit on the branches -very distinct cinnamon red-brown bark -associated with white fire, sugar pine, incense-cedar and ponderosa pine -Very thick bark – fire adapted and fire-dependent species General Grant, one of the most famous, ~3000-3500 years old 100’ taller than any eastern tree, still about 100 shorter than coastal redwood General Sherman tree – largest living organism in the world (not counting fungi) 14’ in diameter at 180’ above ground -butressed at base -see President, National Geographic article -Abies concolor inhibits regeneration of sequoia (fire suppression); sequoia needs bright mineral soils for regeneration -No known pests -trees left are all found in national parks, not used for anything -has been planted in the East (Capitol Building) Calocedrus decurrens incense-cedar Cupressaceae -Siskiyou Mountains home to 30 different tree species *true cedars are in genus Cedrus -not a CA endemic, found in OR and Mexico -resembles northern white-cedar -used for pencil wood, house shingles; very rot resistant -cones scales are basally attached -very drought resistant and shade tolerant -also seen with sugar pine, ponderosa pine and white fir El Capitan Chamaecyparis lawsoniana Port-Orford-cedar Cupressaceae -most limited range of any tree species, Northern CA to Southern OR -moderately shade tolerant -has Xs on underside of foliage -very valuable for timber, but not used much because of limited range -much is shipped to Asia for caskets, houses and temples -greatest number of horticultural varieties -bark resembles C. decurrens -narrow Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii Douglas-fir Pinaceae -exclusive to coast; var. glauca is the one found in the Rockies -single most important timber species -larger in CA than in the Rockies, found in lower montane zone Seen in Yosemite Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Pinaceae -also in montane zone -seen often with sugar pine and incense-cedar Pinus contorta lodgepole pine Pinaceae -very shade intolerant, pioneer of montane and subalpine zones -greatest elevation spread of all pines in western US (P. ponderosa has greatest geographical range) 4 varieties, differences in shape, all 2 needles per fascicle -contorta – more contorted along shore (Shore pine), dominant species along dunes -latifolia – has largest range of all 4 varieties -bolanderi – found in 1 county (Mendocino) in northern CA; scrawny variety, only about 10’ tall -murrayana – 3 sisters area, Oregon; very tough tree Abies concolor white fir Pinaceae -larger in CA than in Rockies -cold and shade tolerant -densely packed in montane zones, prevents giant sequoia regeneration -very fire sensitive Pinus longaeva Great Basin bristlecone pine Pinaceae -oldest living tree on the planet -found in Sierras at about 14000 feet


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